Encyclopedia of

the history of Missouri

Howard Louis Conard

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ENCVCLOrEDiA

OF J!:»;-

History of MissorRi,

A COMPENDILM C>F IIISK'K^ \.N.> I i— ii.A' \\\ FOH HEADY HLI EKHNCF.

t

IIOW^Kij L. Cn.N Ai ii.

VOL. I.

Nhw* 'KK. l.< 'i isviLi ;.. sr. I THI: SC'l TF'ERN HISK.M'^ q ' A .

Hull 1. ^A»'. *t C ■.. r.'i 1- !•

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ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF THE

History of Missouri,

A COMPENDIUM OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY FOR READY REFERENCE.

EDITED BY

HOWARD L. CONARD.

VOL I.

New YORK, LOUISVILLE, St. LOUIS: THE SOUTHERN HISTORY COMPANY. Haidiman. Cotwn U Co.. pROPtnTon.

1901.

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HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY

•MAKLES £Ll.iOil PERKINS A&MORIAL COLLECTION

THE SOUTHERN HISTORY CO.

V

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ADVISORY EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS.

HON. FRANCIS M. BLACK. COL. R. T. VAN HORN. HON. JOHN C. GAGE,

HON. E. L. SCAHKITT.

HON. OLIVER H. DEAN, DANIEL B. HOLMES. W. P. TRICKETT,

HOWARD i\L HOLDEN, CHARLES J. HUBBARD,

COL. THEODORE S. CASE» JOSEPH S. CHICK.

COL. M. J. PAYNE.

WILLIAM H. WINAXTS,

C. LESTER HALL. .M. D., W. D. FOSTER. M. D.,

PROP. JAMES M. GREENWOOD.

MRS. CARRIE WEvSTLAKE WHITNEY, GEORGE HALLEY. M. D.. HENRY M. BBARDSLEY,

REV. WILLIAM J. DALTON, REV. HENRY HOPKINS. REV. J. W. LOVE.

RE\ CAMERON MANN, REV. T. P. HALEY. REV. C. H. BRIGGS. REV. SAMUEL M. NEEU REV. JOHN B. HILL

REV. J. O'B. LOWRY, RICHARD GENTRY.

REV. FREDERICK B. VftlCE, MRS. FRANK COOPER,

PROF. HENRY E 9CHULTZE. E. M. CLENDENING,

R. B. MIDDLEBROOK,

W. A. FORSTER. M. D.,

GEORGE C HALE.

EDWIN R. WEEKS.

MRS. JAMES H. AUSTIN, MRS. JAMES C. HORTON. MRS. M. ROLLIN. S. C. DELAP, M. D., JOSEPH M. LOWE. MRS. H. N. ESS.

JOHN DONOVA.V, JR., MISS MARY A. OWEN, F. W. MAXWELL,

HON. STEPHEN S. BROWN, THOMAS W. EVANS,

HON. WILLIAM F. SWlTZLER. COL. JOHN DONIPHAN.

HON. O. M. SPENCER,

R. L McDonald.

PROF. EDWARD B. NEELY, HON, JOHN A. GALLAHER, HON. S.VM B. COOK. CHARLES O. HARRINGTON,

PROF. S. M. DICKEY.

SAMUEL McREYNOLDS. COL. H. H. GREGG.

HON. CHARLES B. McAFEE, HON. BENJA.MIN U. .MASSEY. HON. JAMES R. VAUGHAN. DABNEY C. DADE,

HON. GEORGE ROBERTSON,

HON. M. G. McGregor,

PROF. J. D. WILSON,

JOHN T. BIRDSEYE, S. A, WIGHT.

HON. DANIEL P. STRATTON. HON. CHARLES G. BURTON. J. E HARDING.

THOMAS EGGER. E L. MOORE. E. H. An.\MS.

HON. W. W. GRAVES, F. J. TYGARD,

JOHX S FRANCISCO.

HON. F. A. SAMPSON, O. A. CRANDALL, J. v.. TEFFT, M. D., HON. F. M. CARTER,

RBV. W. POPE YEAMAN, D. D..

PROF. JOHN D. LAWSON, LL. D., PROF. FREDERICK C. HICKS. PROF. CURTIS F. MARBUT, PROF. GARLAND C BROADHEAD, MRS. LUELLA WILCOX ST. CLAIR. J. H. ALEXANDER, HON. S. M. GREEN.

WILLIAM H. CHILES. JOHN H. BRITTS, M. D.. PROF. U. W. LAMKIN, JAMES R, LUCAS,

J. WAD1-, GARDENER. M. D„ CHARLES H. LUCAS, THOMAS M. JOHNSON, \^^ J. ROUSE,

HON. ROBERT RIIOADES, HON. W. R. SAMUEL,

HON. WILL O. ROTHWELL,

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IV

ADVISORY EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS.

THOMAS J. DOCKERV,

ANDREW J. HERN DON, REV. HIRAM D. GROVES,

HON. WALLER L. BOULWARE, HON. THOMAS H. BACON. HON. S. S. BASSfiTT. HF.NRY C. BELL,

DANIEL M. TUCKER, J J. BOLLINGER,

GEORGE W. CRBATH. HON. T. J. C. FAGG, ELI D. AKE.

HON. WILLIAM CARTER, HON. E. C. LACKS. WILLIAM EVANS. WILLIAM B. NAPTON, R. L. JURDEX.

T. F. B. SOTHAM,

J. D. GRIFFITH, M. D., C. B. HEWITT. D. D. S., COL. JOHN H. SHANKLIN, JOHN N. SHEPLER.

CHARLES W. GREEN. JAMES H. GRIER.

WILLIAM R. PAINTER. A E. HACKETT.

HON. CYRUS F. CLARK,

PROF. WILLIAM TRELEASE. WILLIAM H. THOMSON,

HON. SHEPARD BARCLAY, PROF. SYLVESTER WATERHOUSE. REV. MICHAEL BURNHAM, D. D.. HON. ROBERT A. BAKEWELL, SAMUEL J. CARTER, SENECA N. TAYLOR. REV. ROGER M. SARGENT. D. D.. HON. CHARLES P. JOHNSON, MRS. GEORGE H. SHIELDS, PROF. L. HAEBERLE.

HON. EDWARD C KEHR. LEONORA B. HALSTED.

WILLIAM M. McPHEETERS. M. D.. PROF. AUGUSTUS L. GRAEBNER, ROBERT V. TANSEY,

GEORGE C, PITZER, .M. D., REV. -JOHN W. CUNNINGHAM, PROF. MARSHALL S. SNOW, THEOPHILE PAPIN.

PROF. FREDERICK C. HICKS. REV. JOHN SNYDER, D. D., HON. JAMES O. BROADHEAD.

REV. WILLARD W. BOYD, D. D., MARTHA S. KAVSER,

WILLIAM R. HODGES.

LUDWIG BREMER. M. D.,

T. GRISWOLD COMSTOCK, M. D., WILLIAM H. MILLER, FESTUS J. WADE. JULIUS L. FOY, HON. NORMAN J. COLMAN, SAMUEL M. KENNARD,

HON. MINARD L. HOLMAN. MRS. P. G. ROBERT. JAMI'S L. BLAIR, WALTER L. SHELDON,

HON. MELVIN L. GRAY,

MARY McCONNELL BLAISDELL, JAMES A. WATERWORTH, REV. SAMUEL SALE, ERNST D. KARGAU.

REV. DAVID S. PHELAN, REV. FRANK TYRRELL, EVERETT M. PATPISON,

REV. CHRISTIAN G. HAASk RT. REV. DANIEL S TUTTLE, D. D., EUGENE J. GROSS.

CHARLES F. HATFIELD, ARTHUR N. SAGER, FRANCIS E. COOK. MRS. MBROB E CANNON,

ALEXANDER N. DE MENIL. PH. D., REV. LOUIS G. LANDENBERGER, MARY V. TOOMEY. ENNO SANDER. HON. WILLIAM T. HARRIS,

REV. THOMAS M. FINNEY. D. D.. HENRY CADLE.

REV. WALTER H. HILL, S. J., WILLIAM H. MAYO, THOMAS S. McPHEETERS, WILLIAM J. SEEVER.

HON. FRANK K. RYAN, HON. CHARLES NAGEL.

FREDERICK N. CRUNDBN, PROF. AUGUST WALDAUER. WILLIAM H. WOODWARD.

REV. SAMUEL J. NICCOLLS, D. D., HON. J. GABRIEL WOERNER, COL. JOHN G. KELLY, HORACE KEPHART. THOMAS DIM MOCK, JAMES COX.

HON. WARWICK HOUGH, MRS. FRED. H. INGALLS. HON. NATHAN FRANK, BENJAMIN F. NELSON.

HON. ISAAC H. STURGEON.

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PREFACE.

N this busy age that which saves time and labor in the acquisition of knowledge is not less appreciated than are labor-saving appliances in the arts and industries. As civilization has advanced, Encyclopedias have multiplied, until they now lighten the \dbovs of the student in almost every field of investigation. Hitherto, however, no attempt has been made to apply this plan to the compilation and arrangement of local history, and a search for information concerning any event of local interest has usually been far more laborious than the effort to obtain knowledge of the happenings of remote ages in far-away countries. It has been well said that "history, like charity, begins at home. The best American citizens are those who mind home affairs and local interests." And again, that " the first step in history is to know thoroughly the district where we live. . . . American local history should be studied as a contribution to general history." Ignorance of the history of the country, the city, or community in which we live, is, in this age, "a reproach to any people.'* and those who think it safe to rely solely upon traditions for their knowledge of family or local history cherish a sentiment which should have passed away with the aborigines.

Believing that the cyclopedic plan, which has so greatly facilitated the acquisition of knowledge in broader fields, could not fail to be productive of the most satisfactory results when applied to the preservation of local history, I planned the Encyclopedia of the History of JIftissouri, and the first encyclo- pedia of a State is herewith presented to the public. The compilation of that portion of the encyclopedia relating to the city of St Louis was begun early in the year 1897, with the lamented William Hyde as editor-in-chief. Upon this last labor of his life he entered in the spirit of the true historian, determined that it should be a witness of the times,** past and present, and that he would '* nothing extenuate nor set down aught in malice.** For neariy two years thereafter, Mr. Hyde and myself were co-laborers, and then the dark-winged angel beckoned my beloved associate away from the crowning work of his life. When this talented writer and chivalrous gentleman— who had himself been so much a part of the history of the State— passed away, the completion of our joint task devolved upon me. In the same spirit in which it was begun, the work has been carried forward, and on behalf of my

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PR£FAC£.

dead friend and myself, 1 now submit ttie results to the people of Missouri. Tliat perfection lias been attained, and that our woric wiil be found absolutely free from error, cannot of course be claimed, for—

'* Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, Thinks what ne'er was, nor Is. nor e'er shall be."

Nevertheless, I feel confident that these volumes will commend them- selves to fair and just critics, and fmd favor with an intelligent public, proud of this imperial State, loyal to its welfare, and deeply interested in its history.

To more than two hundred citizens of IVlissouri, who have contributed special articles* or aided in the preparation of this work, in an advisory capacity I desire to return sincerest thanks, and to Dr. Alexander N. De Men il, ex-Chief Justice Shepard Barclay, Mr. Theophile Papin, Mr. Daniel M. Grissom, Capt F. Y. Hedley. Col. R. T. Van Horn, Mr. W. H. Winants, Mr. Howard M. Holden, Hon. M. G. McGregor, Col. H. H. Gregg, Hon. Charles B. McAfee, Mr. Dabney C. Dade, Hon. F. A. Sampson, Hon. William B. Napton, Hon. William H. Chiles, Hon. Charles G. Burton, Mon. George Robertson, Hon. Thomas H. Bacon and Hon. Will O. Rothwell, the editor has been especially indebted for counsel and assistance in the compilation of the encyclopedia. To those, also, who have generously aided us to illustrate this work more elaborately and beautifully than any historical work previously published in the State, I beg to return the thanks of the publishers as well as my own. This cordial co-operation has alone made its publication possible. The warm welcome which has been extended, in so many ways, to this undertaking, by the men and women of Missouri, is but one manifestation of that spirit of liberality which is universally recognized as a distinguishing trait of this people. We are grateful for that welcome, and for the opportunity we have had, in the preparation of this great memorial, to shape into permanent form the annals of such citizenship as this State can proudly boast

In these records of public and private achievement may be easily found the secret of that wonderful development which has won for the State her present proud rank ; and in these records, moreover, may be seen the evidences of that impulse, energy and resistless force which promise to Missouri the yet - more brilliant role of leadership which manifest destiny has marked out for her in the civilization and culture of the great Southwest.

HOWARD L CONARD.

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INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS.

A

PAOR

Adams, Elmer I*. 8 Illecs Military Academy

Allen. .Arthur M 21 Academic Hall ..

Allen, John M 26 . The Aula

Armour. Andrew W '. 58 Athletic I'"icld ...

Askew. Frank 70 Dludscit. Wells H

Autenricth, George 90 Boulware, Theodrick L.

Aylor, Joseph W 9$ Boyce, Joseph

Boyd. James W. ......

B Ikandoni, Charles P. . .

Baker, John W loi Brashear. Richard M. .

Barclay, Shepard 147 Hudson E

Barnes. Baron S 149 I'-nnkerhoflf. VVilham E.

Barron. Henry 163 Broadhead, James O. . .

Bartlett, Eayre 0 166 Browning. William T. .

Barton. Abraham P 168 Pryant, Walter G

Barton, David 170 Burnett. S. Grovcr ....

Barton, C. Josephine W 172 B*"^, WUliam D

Baskett. James N 176

Bedford, Henry H 190 ^

Bell, Charles C 193 Cain. George W

Bell, Nicholas M 196 Cantwell, Harry J

Benton. Thomas H Frontispiece. Cass, Amos A

Bernays. Augustus C 209 Chambers, Dynes

Binder, Frederick H 272 Chambers, George W.

Black. James 262 Chiles, Cornelius C. ...

Blanke, Cyrus F 290 Chrisman, George L. .

Blees, Frederick W. V 293 Christy, John M

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They who lived in history .... seemed to wallc the earth again.

Longfellow.

We may gather out of history a policy no less wise than eternal.

Sir Waller Raleigh.

Histories malce men wise.— ^aaw.

Truth comes to us from the past as gold is washed down to us from the mountains of Sierra Nevada, in minute but precious particles. Bovee.

Examine history, for it is "philosophy teaching by example."— Giri^/f.

History is the essence of innumerable biographies. CarlyU,

Biography is the most universally pleasant* the most universally protltable, of all reading.— Car/y/^".

Both justice and decency require that we should bestow on our forefathers an honorable remembrance.— TXiMydEu/^f.

"If history is important, biography is equally so. for biography is but history individualized. In the former we have the episodes and events illustrated by communities, peoples, states, nations. In the latter we have the li\ es and characters of individual men shapmg events, and becoming instructors of future generations."

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Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri.

Aaron, William Lucas, lawyer, was born April ai, 1856, in Quincy, Adams Coanty, Illinois. His parents were John and Remember (Hull) Aaron. The father was bom in Camden, Delaware, from which State he sailed to Mobile, Alabama, whence he trav- eled to the city which became the birthplace of his son, in 1849. '^^'^^ mother was a daugh- ter of Captain Hull, and a niece of Commo- dore Hull, of the United Stttcs Navy. Cap- tain TItill, who was a native of Virginia, moved to Illinois in 1817, making tlie passage by river with a flatboat to wfiat is now East St. Louis. During the Indian troubles he commanded a company in the First Illinois Militia Regiment. His hat plume, eighteen inches long, made of redbird feathers and whalebone, is now in possession of the grand- son, William Lucas Aaron. The last named was reared as a farm boy, ai^ as «n incident of this portion of his life, had charge of an extensive orchard. After completing the branches taught in the ordinary ptd>fic scSnols he took an academic course under Professor Pike, an accomplished educator of Jerseyville, Illinois, and later completed the L^n-Scien- tific course of the Wesleyan University, at Bloomington, Illinois. In 1R74 he attended a commercial college in Quincy, and during vacation read law under the pmceptorsfaip of Judge Joseph C. Thompson, of the same city. He then entered the law school of the Michi- gan University, at Ann Arbor, from which he was gradtratcd in the class of 1879, In 1876 the Honorable Scott Wike, member of Con- gress from tiie TWdMi Iflinds Congressional District, tendered him an appointment to the ^Tilitary Academy at West Point, which he de- clined. He was engaged in practice in Quincy, Illinois, until 1886, when he made a trip to the West for improvement in health. His journey was broken at Hays City, Kansas, on account of a blizzard. A murder trial was about to begin, and, it becoming known that he was a lawyer, be was engaged to defend

A

the case, in which he was successful. This was the occasion of his locating in that place, and he entered upon practiee. He was twice elected pnosecirting attorney, and declined re- nomination for a third term. He was then nominated by the Democrats for judge of tlie Court of Appeals, and was defeated at the polls. In 1897 he removed to Joplin, Mis- souri, and engaged in a practice which has proven successful and remimerative. At pres* ent he is a mpin!)f r of the law firm of Aaron & Shepherd, located in the Masonic Block, where they occupy a handsome suite of nooms, whh an extensive library. He has taken some ) interest in mining affairs, and has developed I good mines in the Lone Elm neighborhood. In politics he is a consistent Democrat, and in religion a member of flie First Presbyterian Church, Mr. Aaron was married, December 22, 1880, at Carth^, Illinois, to Miss Alice G. Johnson, daugliter of James G. Johnson, a manufacturer of farm implements. They are the parents of three children, Lawrence J., Ella M. and William L. Aaron, Jr.

Abbaclie, D% was Governor of Louisiana from 1763 to 1765, and exercised civil and

niilitary jurisdiction over the territory now included ni ilic State of Missouri, at the time St. Louis was founded. He was sent by the King of France to New Orleans, in 1763, to take charge of certain royal business interests, and was authorized also to assume the func- r.f Director General of the Province of Louisiana, with the powers ol a military com- mandant As the result of the cenion of Louisiana to Spain, in 1762, he was ordered to turn over the command to a reipresentative of the Spanish government, and did so at tlie close of the year 1764. Grief at this change in his fortunes causf-d his dpatli. Februarv 4. 1765. Abbadie was a man of noble impulses ; he protected the Indians, caused the masters to treat their slaves more kindly, and, in many ways, endeared himsdf to the Louisianians.

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ABBOTT— ABLE.

AblHitt, CharloH Lincoln, dentist, was bom OctobtT 20, i860, in North Reading, Massachust'tts, son of Joel Augustus and Sarah Ann ( Parker) Abbott. The parents were b(Xh natives oi Massachusetts, and came from families that had settled there in an early day, playing a cons{)icti(nis part in tlic tlcvcl- opment and growth of the Commonwealth of which they came to be a substantial part. The M>n attended the gratntnar and liigii sduxils of Lowell, Massachusetts, applying himself with such faithfulness that he acquired a thor- ough knowledge of the higher literary brandies, and was well prepared for the pro- fessional course of which he liad determined to avail himself. In 1881 he entered the Harvard Dental ("nllege, and atlendcil that institution's course of lectures rlirce year», giadtuitinir, in 1884, with the degree of D. M I) After receiving liis diploma he de- termined to enter upon active practice at once, and, therefc»re, removed to Kansas City, Mis- souri, in 1885, where he has since tended . a prominent member of the profession and a man highly esteemed. Beginning with the year i88<;, he was for three years connected with the Kansas City Dental College as an in- structor in Operative Dentistry. He filled that chair with great credit to himself and to the best interests of the institution, but re- signed in order that he might devote his entire time to the practice of his profession. He holds to the principles of the Democratic party, but is not an active worker in political affairs. He is a member of the Kansas City Clttfo, is popular in the social circles in which he moves, and enjoys not only the confidence of the public, but the unhmited respect of those with whom he is asaociMed in a profcs- sional capacity.

Able» Barton* was bom in Trinity,

Alexander County, Illinois, July 31. 1823, and died in St. Louis, May 6, 1877. His father was of Irish descent, and his mother came of a. Scotch family. Leaving home when he was seventeen years of age, Mr. Able started out to make his own way in the world, and in 1845 accumulated one hundred dol-

lars capital, with which he came to St. Louis. Immediately after his coming here he became connected with the river 4>iiikness, as a cleric

on the steamer "Ocean Wave." Two year> later he was made captain (A this boat, and afterward, until 1854. cocmnanded the atewn-

ers "Time and Tide ' and "Cataract," then running in the Illinois trade. From 1854 to 1858 he was in the Missouri River trade, as Certain of the steamers "Cataract" and ''Edinburgh." From 1858 to 1864 he con- ducted a large commission house on the cor- ner of Pine and Commercial Streels, in St. Louis. Thereafter, until the end <A his life, he was prominently identified with the busi- ness interests of St. Louis, and during the year 1865 was president of the Merchants' Exchange. For some years he was a mem- ber of the National Board of Trade, and fre- quently represented the Merchants' Exchange at Washington, in the interest of Western trade and co<nmerce. In the early years of his residence in St. I-ouis he began taking an interest in politics, and was one of the "old- line" Denracrats who took part in the "Free Soil" movement in Missouri. Tn 1856 lie was a member of the State Legislature, and while serving in that capacity he placed Thomas H. Benton in nomination for the United States Senate, and cast the first vote for "emancipa- tion" in this State. He was a Benton dele- gate to the Cincinnati Convention of 1856, which nominated Buchanan for President, and four years later sat in the Chicago Conven- tion of the newly orga»i>c<l Republican party.

which nominated Abraham Lincoln for Presi- dent. When the Civil War began he became known as one of the ardent Unionists of Mis- souri, and rendered valuable ser\'ices to the government, and was the personal friend and coniklailt of General John A. Logan. He was entrusted whh the command of government transportation at St. Louis, in which capacity he had sole charge of the expedition which conveyed Lyon and Bbir to Boonville. He also commanded tlie ficrt that left St. Louis with General Fremont and the expedition to Cairo in i86t. At the close of the war he was among the first to favor a conciliatory policy in Missouri, and the restoration to ex- Confederates of the rights which they had previoasly enjoyed. He was a member of the Conservative delegation to the Baltimore Convention of 1864, and was chairman of the delegation sent from Missouri to the Phifakdel- phia Convention of 1866. which met to con- sider the state of the country. In later years he was pronrinent in the councils of the Dem- ocratic party, and was .1 conspicuous figure in various National Conventions of that party. Captain Able married, in 1847, Miss Mary

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ABORIGINAL ANTIQUITIES— ACADEMY OF MEDICINE. KANSAS CITY. 3

Hariiilton. of Kaskaskui, Illinois, who sur- vived him.

Aboriginal AnMqnltiea. On the

hi<,^lier Muffs of our larger streams, especially along the Missouri and its tributaries, there are ^ten seen rounded mounds five to fifteen feet high, and some are even higher, and twenty to fifty feet in diameter, and sometifties they may be longer one way than the other. On these trees are sometimes seen gro\ving of two to three feet in diameter. These mounds were here when the white man firil came into tilis country.

In the western part of Clay County, on the Missouri bluffs, there are a number of tiiese mounds. After digfginir into them three to four feet there was disclosed a walled sepul- cher just d^iht feet square, built of stone, per- fectly strai^t ^thin and two feet high. No care seems to have been taken to have the wall straight on the outside. Within tiiese walls several human skeletons were found, as many as five or six in one inclosnrc. Mounds re- sembling these outwardly have been opened on Hinkson lilulTs, Boone County, some of them walled, but more roughly than those in Clay County. Human skeletons were also found ; also earthen pots, flints and stone axes. Over the bodies there seem to have been placed flat stones, then dirt well packed, and fire was aiterward applied, as shown by booes partly burned and partly burned clay. Simi- lar mounds and stone structures have been observed in St. Louis, Pike, Montgomery and Ralls Counties.

St. Louis has been called the "Mound Gty," from the number of mounds originally found there, especially a large one at the intersection of Broadway and Mound Streets. In New Madrid County there are many mounds, from which nmch pottery has been taken. BtK it is not so perfect as fhat of tiie Mexican PncbhMi.

On the surface, at many places, are foond flint arrow heads, both small and lao^, ■ocne roughly made, some very finely worked; oltO axes of exquisite workmanship. The rouglier flints may have been shaped by tnc present Indians, but there is no evidence that any of tfie present tribes could shape and polish these stone implements in any way btrt roughly. Other persons of higher artistic attainments most have rfn|>ed tiiem, and tiiese may have been driven off by the present races several bandred years 9f^. The Tohecs of Mexico

have legends that they were driven away from a country inhabited by them, away to the northeast, htmdreds o$ years ago. . (Sec also "Archaedogy" and "Indian Miounds.")

G. C. BXOADHBAD.

Academy of Arehitectiiro and Building. An institution founded in St. Louis, in 1885, at the corner of Ninth and Arsenal Streets, with Henry Maack as prin- cipal. .Xs indicated* in, its name, the jiurposes of the institution are to give practical instruc- tion in architecture and buUdinf^, and it is said to have been the first school of its kind founded in the United States. After being conducted for some years at the location first named, this school was removed to the corner of Eighth Street and Chouteau Avenue, and from there, in the fall of 1898, to 1742 Chou- teau Avenue.

Academy of Medleal and Sargrl-

cal ScIeilceH.— An association of the pli vsi- cians and surgeons of St. Louis, organized November 6, 1895, by Drs. James M. Hall, Emory Lanpluar, Wellington Adams and others. Its purpose is to elevate the stand- ard of the profession, to promote scientific research and increase the skill and efficient of practitioners of medicine. It had in 1898 an active membership of fifty physicians and sui:geons.

Aead«iiiy of Medicine, Kansas

City. ^The Academy of Medicine, incorpo- rated, grew out of the Kansas City Physicians' Club, organized in 1890. The organizing members were Dr. H. C. Crowell, Dr. Charles F. Wainwright, Dr. W. G. Douglas, Dr. John Punton, Dr. Hal Foster and Dr. A. P. Parker, of whom tiie three first named were, reaipcc^ tively, elected president, vice president and secretary. The academy has become one (rf the most useful and most widely known medi- cal socit"ties in the countrv. Its weekly meet- ings, habitually attended by about one-half of its membership of one hundred, are for ad- dresses and discussions Upon iM'ofesstonal topics. An elaborate prcogramme and a ban- quet are features of the annual meeting. A library valued at $ao,ooo, located in the Riako Building, is accessible at all times; it com- prises exclusively professional works, gifts from audiorB and publtriicrt, and receives con- stant accessions as new worUli are issued from the press.

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ACADEMY OF OUR LADY OF MERCY— ACADEMY OF ST. JOSEPH.

Academy of Our Lady of Horcy.—

See "Joplin."

Academy of Selence, St. Louis.—

About the year 1843 five or six young men, among whom were Dr. W. G. Eliot and Dr. George Engelmaitn, met in tiie office of Judge Marie P. Lcduc to found what for a time was known as the Western Academy of Science. Their organization purduaed a few sera of ground near irittt il HOW Eighth Street and Chouteau Avemic, and on a small scale a botanical garden and arboretum were begun there by Dr. Engeimann ; but the numbers were small, and the Western Academy of Science soon ceased to exist. On the lodi of March, 1856, some of these same men, with others, came together in tlie hall of the Board of Public Schools of the city, and then organ- ized wfnt has since ocisted as llie Academy of Science of St. Louis. Dr. George Engeimann was the first president, and that office has since been filled by such well known scientific men and representative citizens of St. Louis aS B. F. Shumard, Adolphus Wislizenus, Hiran^ A. i'rout, Dr. Jdtin B. Johnson, James B. Eads. William T. Harris, Charles V. Riley. Francis E. Nipher. Henry S. Pritchett, John Green, Melvin L. Gray and Edmund A. Engler. Under Idie constitttdon, active mem- bership is limited to persons interested in science, but it has never been the rule of the academy that they should be actively engaged in research. The roll of 759 members who Inve been elected since the organization of the academy, of whom 202 are now carried on the active list, includes many names of per- .9ons who stand high in the bnsincss and pro- fessional comnmnity. A considerable list of non-resident corr^xmding' members has been elected, who arc connected with some of the larger scientific establishments of . the worid and noted for their attsdnments. One person, Mr. Edwin Harrison, for eminent service and large donations to the academy, has been elected a patron.

The act of incorporation declares the object of the academy to be the advancement of science and the estabKshment in St. Louis of a museum and library for the illustration and study of its various branches. The constitu- tion provides for holding meetings for the constderaAion and discossion of scientific sub- jects, procurinc: orip^inal papers upon such subjects, publishing worthy scientific matter.

establishing and maintaining a cabinet of ob- jects illustrative of science and a Ubrary of worlcs rdating thereto, and the institution of rdatioas with other scientific organizations.

The regular meetings of the academy are held at 8 o'clock on the first and third Monday evenings of each month, excepting the summer season, and they are open to all persons, without special invitation. They are devoted to the reading of technical papers designed for publication, and to the presenta- tion of more popular abstracts of recent inves- tigation or progress. Occasional p«d>lic h> tures, calculated to interest a larger audience^ are provided for in some suitable hall.

Beginning wiili Uie officers for 1857, the charter, approved January 17, and accepted February 9, 1857, the by-laws and the record and papers from March 10, 1856, the trans- actions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis have now extended through seven oc- tavo volumes, averaging 700 pages each, in addition to which several spedal publications have been issued.

In its early years, the academy met in Pope's Medical Cdlege, where a snnll library and museum had been brought together; btrt in May, 1869, the building was destroyed by fire, and the academy saved only its library. The library now contains over 20,000 books and pamphlets, and is very rich in the proceedings of the learned bodies of tfie entire civilized world, with many Irandreds of which the acad> emy stands in intimate exchange relation: and, though it is not a circulating library, nor, in the proper sense, a public library, it is alwa\ s available for consultation by persons wishing to mako s( rious use of it, by arrange- ment wiA the proper officers. Since tiie loss of its museum the academy has lacked ade- quate room and funds for the maintenance of a public museum, but it is each year obtain- ing a finner hold on the interest and affection of the community, through widened member- ship, and its officers are looking forward to the possibility, in the not distant future, of securing for .St. Louis a carofullv planned educational museum of natural history, which can not faa to be of great use in stfanulating research and promoting popular education in science, especially titrough its availability for the use of the teadiers in the public schools.

Academy of St. Josopli.— A private school at Hannibal, under the direction of the

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ACADl'MV OF THE SACRED HEART, vST. CHARLEvS-ADAIR COUNTY. 6

Sisters of St. Joseph, whose mother house is in St. Louis. In 1864 the Catholic Church of Hannibal raised fimdc 1^ popular snbacrip-

tion and purchased the building and grounds of the Hannibal Institute, an unsuccessful pri- vate school, and deeded the property to the

Sisters of St. Joseph, who first opened the in- stitution as a parochial school, which was so successful that it was soon evolved into an academy. Extensive improvements have been made at different times, and the value of the grounds and buildings are now estimated at neatly $5o,ooa

Academy of the Sacred Heart, St. Oharlea*— An academyfor young ladiesatSt.

Charles. It was the fir<;t instituted in America by the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. In 1818 lifaidanie Duchesne, one of tiie first associates of the founder of the order, Mother Madeline Soi^iie Barret, arrived in New Or- leans from France. She soon came to St. Louis, accompanied by Octavie Berthold, Eu- genie Ande and others, with the desire of working for the conversion of Indians. Bishop Dubourg gave her plan bis approbation, and St. Charles was fixed upon as a location. There a log cabin of two rooms was provided, but porerty soon drove the little band to St. IjOUia. They soon established a house at Florissant^ where the school became success- ful. In 1828 Madame Duchesne, vritt Mes- dmca Berthold, Lucille and O'Conner, ac- companied by Bishop Rosatti and several Jesuit Fathers, returned to St. Charles and erected a small chapel. October 29, Mes- dames Lucille and O'Conner opened school with five pupils, and in a few months this number was increased to fifty. In 1844 the property was enlarged to meet the require- ments of increased numbers of pupils, and ten years later large and substantial stdditions were erected. In 1875 one of the buildings was damaged by fire, and in 1876 by a tor- nado, but without loss of life.

Academy of the Sacred Heart, St. Joseph. In 1853 four Sisters of the Sacred Heart went from St Louis to St. Joseph and founded this institution, which is now the old- est school in the city. The foundation of the present convent building was laid in 1856. The institution is now one of the most popular of its kind conducted in the West under the anspiees <rf 'tiiis sisterhood.

Adair County. A county in the north- em part of the State, bounded on tiic north by Putnam and Schuyler; east, by Scotland and Knox; south, by Macon, and west, by Sulli- van County ; area, 367,000 acres. The surface (rf the county is undnhtting, and about equally divided between prairie and timber. The Chariton River flows through the county from nortii to south, a few mUes weit of the center, heavy growths of timber extendin{^ for many miles on either side. The chief tributaries of the Chariton are Blackbird, Shuteyc, Spring, Billy, Hog and Walnut Creeks on the west, and Hazel, Rye, Bi^ and Sugar Creeks on the east. East of a gentle divide, which passes through the county from noitii to south, east of the center, are South Fabius, Cottonwood, Lloyd, Steer, Timber, Bear and Bee Creeks, and Salt River, all flowing in an easftwardly direction toward the Mississippi. Beautiful forests of timber fringe these winding streams. The principal woods are maple, black walnut, different kinds of oak, elm, lind, hickory, hackberry and cottonwood. The soil is vari- able, but is principally a dark, sandy loam of mndi productiveness, and capable of growdng great crops of the different kinds to which it is adapted. Corn yields an average of 30 bushels to the acre; oats, 23 bushds; wheat, 15 bushels, and i>otatoes, i GO bushels. About 75 per cent of the land is under cultivation, 10 per cent in pasture and the remainder in tim< ber. A stratum of bituminous coal underlies the greater part of the county, and a number of mines are extensively operated. Coal min- ing is fast increasing in importance, giving employment to about 2,000 hands in the county. The county contains abundance of limestone, sandstone and fire day of great purity. The report of the Piireau of Labor Statistics shows that in 1898 the surplus pro- ducts shipped from the county were: Gatde, 3,406 head; hogs, 25,290 head; sheep, 1,148 head; horses and mules, 95 head; oats, 1.996 bushels; com, 31,067 bushels; hay, 98,500 pounds ; flour, 635,740 pounds ; com meal, 5,- 900 pounds, shipstufT, 58,750 pounds; clover seed, 27,000 pounds; timothy seed, 87,020 pounds; lumber, 607,700 feet; walnut logs, 18,000 feet; pilingf and posts, 66,000 feet; cross-ties, 18,614; cordwood, 156 cords; cooperage, 13 cars; coal, 58,320 tons; gravel, 8 cars ; lime, 24 barrels ; tobacco, 400 pounds; potatoes, 549 bushels; poultry, 2,550,- 299 pounds; eggs, 155,979 dojten'; butter.

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ADAIK COUNTY.

5i.i»>o pounds; taJlow, 21,855 pounds; hides and pelts, 62,9^2 pounds ; apples, 790 barrels ; ireth fruit, 908,610 pooiHls; veg«iab1es, 15400

f>ountls ; meats, 2,215 p'^nn'l^^; canned pixids, 40,ocx) pounds; nursery stock, 9,000 pounds; furs, 7,752 pounds; fttHien, 28,960 pounds. Other articles exported were dressed meats, gfamc, fii?h, mol.T^scs, cider and wool. It is a niatu:! iliat rciuauis in obscurity just who was the first white man to visit the territory now Adair County. As near as tradition can fix. the date o( first settlement is 1828, when a number of whites settled near tiie present site of Kirksvillc. and the little colony beratnc known to the Indians as the "Cabins of W hite Folks." There is little known of the members of this colony, where they came from or whitluT they went. It is generally thoug^lit that they came from Kentucky. They were in tlie settlement about a year wiien they were visited by a l^r^c band of Iowa Indians, who shamefully abused the women and committed mmieroas depredations. The settlers not be- inp of suflRcient number to protect tluinselvcs, and becoming tiioroughly alarmed, dispatched a courier to the settlements fai Randolph County. On the night of July 24, 1829, tlie messenger arrived at the house of W illiam Blackwell, who resided about four miles north of the site of Macon City, some fifty miles from the "Cabins." His story of the Indian outrages passed quickly through the settle- ments, and before the next evening a com- pany Itad been or<:^nized, and, under com- mand ol Captain Trammel, marched to a point now in Macon County, called tfie "Grand Nar- row;;," an opening in the tini!'( r bordering a prairie. There they camped for the night, and the following day marched to the "Cabins," a distance of more than f. .rtv nnk^ Tho next morning a coimcil was lu-ld, and it was determined to request the Indians to re- turn to their homes. A march of several miles was »)ia<le to the rear of the Indian encamp- ment. A call for an interpreter was made. . As the Indians approached, one of the white men. named Myers, who was ( no <f tlie olany at the "Cabins." shot and instantly killed an In- dian whom he recognized as one who had grossl\ abused his wife. Without pariey the Indiajis began to "'^ad their gnns. the squaws retreating. Captain Trammel gave his men orders to fire, which were obeyed, but his men, not waiting to rel.^nd. awed bv tlie larcjo num- ber of the Indians, retreated, followed for

some distance by the Indians. Going to the "Cabins," the women and children were bun- dled up, and the party marched all night and part of the next day, until they reached a place witliin five miles of Huntsville. There a short rest was taken, after which the women and children were sent to Howard Coanty. Another company of about sixty-five men was organized, and, under command of Captain Sconce, returned to where the battle with the Indians had taken place. There they found the bodies of three men, Winn, Owenly and Myers, who had been kilted by the Indians, .ind also the bodies of tlirce braves. The re- mains of tlie white men were buried, and those of the Indians were left where they were found. Returinng to Howard County, a regi- ment was formed and placed under corniTiand of Colonel John B. Clark, and an expedition was made against the Indians, who were driven ovtT into Iowa Territory. The trouble with the Indians prevented furtlier attempts at settlement in Adair County territory mitil the spring of 183 1, when a number of Ken- tuckians located upon land. Among these settlers were John Stewart, JcAn Cain, An- drew Thompson, Robert Meyers, Frayel Mey- ers, Jesse Jones, James A. Adkins and W ash- ington and Lewis Conner. John Cain settled about five miles northwest of Kirksville ; the Stewarts about six miles north of Kirksville, and near them tlie Adkins settled ; Jesse Jones settled sooth of John Cain, on the Chariton River. On the land located by Cain a fort was built, called Fort Clark, after Colonel John B. Clerk, and one at the headwaters of Salt River, in wliat is now Section 36. Adair County was organised January 2<), 1841, and named for a courty in Kentucky, from which came nearly all the early settlers in Adair C'Muitv territory. Tho cn-arive act named Jetlcrson Ct>llins, of Lewis County ; L. B. Mitchell, of Clark, and Thomas Ferrell, of Monroe County. comniissioniTS to locate a pennanent seat of justice, and directed that a site be selected within two and a half miles of the ci tiicr 01 tlic i >>iuuy. A public meeting was held at a place about one mile southeast of Kirksville on the day of the first meeting of the County seat commissii>ners, and an ef- fort made to have the comity ^tat located there. Jesse Kuk had settled on a tract of land now part of the town of Kirks\ille. He had only a settlement ricrht to the property, but offered to donate fifty acres of the tract to

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tiie county for county seat purposes. His offer was accepted, and the report of tiie com- missioners to that effect was made to the cir> cuit court, December 30, 1841. The report was not approved, as there was no perfect title to the land. Later the tract was dtily entered and the title to the property perfoc ttNl The land was laid out in town lots, which were sold att ptfbtie auction. The first courthouse was a log structure, and was built during