Pe, 4 ae

Roe eee alti

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Purchased with a Gift from DR. STORRS L. OLSON and the CULLMAN ENDOWMENT

THE

NATURAL HISTORY

OF

Peel ist BIRDS;

OR, A SELECTION or THE MOST RARE, BEAUTIFUL, ano INTERESTING BIR DS WHICH INHABIT THIS COUNTRY :

THE DESCRIPTIONS FROM THE

Sow HOM INA TUR Ze OF LINN 2£.U S; wiITH GENERAL OBSERVATIONS,

EITHER ORIGINAL, OR COLLECTED FROM THE LATEST AND MOST ESTEEMED

ENGLISH ORNITHOLOGISTS ; AND EMBELLISHSD WITH

Poole. Ri. BS,

DRAWN, ENGRAVED, AND COLOURED FROM THE ORIGINAL SPECIMENS.

By FE. DOMOVAN.

NOOME SS) Melo or

LOND ON:

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR; AND FOR F. €. AND J. RIVINGTON, No. 62, ST. PAUL’S CHURCH-YARD. 1836,

Law aud Gilbert, Printers, St. John’s, Square, Renacn

PEAT B UOxXY.

~COLUMBA TURTUR. TURTLE DOVE.

PASSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill ftraight, defcending towards the tip : noftrils oblong, and halt

covered with a foft tumid membrane.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND

SYNONYMS.

Tail feathers tipped with white: back grey : breaft flefh colour: each fide the neck a fpot of black feathers with white tips.

Cotumsa Turtur: reétricibus apice albis, dorfo grifeo, pe€tore incarnato, macula laterali colli nigra lineolis albis. Scop. Aine lin, 1St.

Turtur. Olin. uce. 834.—Briff av. 1. p. 92. n. 1—Norzem. nederl,

| Vogel. t. 6.

Tourterelle. Buff. Hift. Oif. 2. p. 545.4. 25.—P]. Enl. n. 394.

Turtle, or Turtle-dove. Brit. Zool. 1. n. 10? t. 45.——Albin. av. 2.8, 47.

A 2 The

| cam tas Wand Wee) sea 69. Ce

Turtle Doves inhabit Europe, and fome parts of Afia, being met with in China, and India. In Britain they are not uncommon during the fummer feafon, arriving however later in the fpring, and leaving the country earlier in autumn than any other of the pigeon

tribe.

The conftancy of the Turtle-dove to its mate is proverbial. They build in general in the thickeft woods, forming their nefts on the branches of the loftieft trees: like the reft of the pigeons, they lay only two eggs; and, it is concluded, breed only once in a feafon. Thefe birds are of a fhy and timid difpofition, and feldom venture from their woody retreats in the day-time, unlefs in flocks of about twenty together. They fubfift on berries, fruits, and various kinds of vegetables, and are efpecially partial to peas, the fields of which they vifit as foon as the crop begins to ripen, and oftentimes commit vaft depredations, There are feveral fuppofed varieties of this fpe-

cies, {ome of which may prove hereafter to be diftin@ kinds.

This is a bird of extremely beautiful plumage, and meafures in

length about twelve inches.

Pid, Ac To. CX Xvi,

HIRUNDO RIPARIA. SAND MARTIN.

PASSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill fmall, weak, incurvated, fubulate, and depreffed at the bafe : gape larger than the head: tongue fhort, broad, and cleft: wings

long: tail generally furcated.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND

SYNONYMS. Cinereous, throat and abdomen white. ©

HiIRUNDO RIPARIA: Cinerea, gula abdomineque albis. Linn. Fn. Suec. 273. Kram. el. p. 381.1. 40 Mill. Zool. p. 34. n. 2896 HIRUNDO RIPARIA. Gen. av. 656. Aldr. orn. 2. p. 694. te 695. Ray av. p. 71.0. 3. Hirondelle de rivage. Buff. Hift. Nat. 6. 0. 632.——Pl, enl. nm. 643,

f. 2 Uferfchwalbe.

PLAT & Sexxy.

Uferfchwalbe. Frifch. av. t. 18. Georg. it. p. 175.

Sand-Martin, or Shore-bird. Arf. Zool. 2. p. 430. %. 332. Willer, Ps 21S 0h So:

A {mall bird of very delicate appearance, meafuring rather lefs than five inches in length, and having the upper part of the plumage brown, the lower white. This little fpecies inhabits various parts of

Europe and America: in Britain, it may be confidered, if not a rare,

at leaft a very local fpecies.

The Sand-Martin, as its name implies, is in a great meafure - peculiar to fandy places. Their ufual haunts are the fides of fand- banks contiguous to lakes and rivers, where they live in deep openings, dug in an horizontal courfe, and at the furtheft end of which receiles the neft is depofited. Sometimes the neft of the Sand- Martin is built in cavities of rocks, fand-pits, or hollow trees; almoft invariably, however, on the banks of lakes or rivers, the old birds fubfifting, for the moft part, on the infeéts which it takes on the wing

when fkimming the furface of the water.

The neft confifts of fibres of grafs, intermixed with ftraw, and a few feathers: the eggs, about fix in number, are of a beautiful white colour, and tran{parent. It cannot be abfolutely afferted whether the

Sand=Martin has two, or only a fingle brood in the year.

PLATE

PLA E* CRXVIT.

MEROPS APIASTER. COMMON BEE-EATER.

PIcé,

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill curved, quadrangular, compreffed, carinate, pointed: noftrils fmall, at the bafe of the bill; tongue flender, the tip moftly jagged :

feet grefforial.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND

SYNONYMS.

Back ferruginous : abdomen and tail green-blue : two tail feathers

longeft ; throat yellow.

MEROpsS APIASTER : dorfo ferrugineo, abdomine caudaque viridi- ceerulefcente, reétricibus duabus longioribus, gula lutea. Gmel. Syft. 1. p. 460.—Linn. Sy/t. 1. p. 182. 1. i

Merops galileus. Hajffelg. it. 247.—Fn. Arab. p. 1.

Bienenfraas. Wairfing. Vog. t. 27.

La Merope. Cet. uc. Sard. t. p. 93.

I{pida cauda molli, Kram. El. p. 387.

| BEE-

PLATE CXXVII.

BEE-EATER. Will. p, 147. Albina. 2. te 44. Linn. Tranf. v. 8. p. 338.

The Common Bee-eater is a bird of very fplendid plumage, the male in particular, the colours in that fex being of a more vivid caft than in the female. It has been denominated the European Bee- eater; aterm not, perhaps, fufficiently difcriminate, fince another fpecies of the fame genus, the Merops Congenor, is alfo found in Europe. Neither is the Merops Apiafter peculiar to Europe: it ex- tends both to Africa and Afia: in Europe it is confined to fouthern

countries, and in Afia to more temperate regions.

Till within the laft few years, this fpecies was altogether unknown as a native of Britain. The firft account we have of its being met with in this country, is recorded in the third volume of the Linnzan Tranfa&tions, from which it appears, that a folitary example of the

{pecies was fhot in the year 1794, and communicated to Dr. Smith.

This bird meafures about ten inches, from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail. Its food confifts of infeéts of various kinds, more efpecially thofe of the bee tribe, in reference to which it bears the name of Bee-eater. Their nefts are faid to be compofed of mofs, and to be depofited, like that of the fand-martin, in deep holes in the banks of rivers. The eggs are fmaller than thofe of a blackbird, of

a white colour, and from five to feven in number.

PLA

128

=

PLATE CXXVIIL.

PERDIX COTURNIX. COMMON QUAIL.

GALLINA.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex and ftrong: noftrils with a prominent margin : orbits

. papillous: legs naked, and moftly armed with a fpur.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER | AND

SYNONYMS.

Legs unarmed : body grey, {potted : eye-brows white: tail feather

with ferruginous edge and crefcent.

PERDIX Corurnix: mutica, corpore grifeo maculato, fuperciliis albis, re&tricibus margine Junulaque ferruginea. Lath. Ind. Orn. t. 2. p. 651. n. 28. |

Tetrao Coturnix. Linn. Syft. 1. p. 278. 20-~—Fu. Suec.

No. 206.—Gmel. Syft. 1. p. 765.

Quaglia. Zinnan. Uov. p. 36. t. 5. f. 19.

Wachtel. Gunth. Neff. u. Ey. i. 35.

LaCaille. Buff. 2. p. 449. 2. 16.—PI, eni, 170.

Quail. Ard. Zool, 2. p. 320. B.

. Albin, 1. t. 80.

We | Bre Zool. 1. No. 97 VoL. VI. B The

PLATE CXXVIIL | The Quail is a {mall bird, about feven inches and a half in length;

the female differs from the male, in being deftitute of the black fpots on the fore part of the neck, breaft, and lateral feathers, and in the

rufous fpace being paler.

This bird occurs in the greateft plenty throughout Rufha, Tartary, China, and other parts of India, changing its fituation in immenfe flocks according to the feafons, in the {pring proceeding northward, and returning fouthward in autumn. In the iflands of the Archipe- lago, and the fouth of Europe, they appear at certain times in immenfe myriads. Twice in the year, it is faid, they come in fuch vaft abund- ance into the ifland of Capri, that the bifhop derives the chief part of his revenue from them; and on the weft coaft of the kingdom of Naples, within the {pace of four or five miles, an hundred thoufand have been taken ina day. The Quail is not a common bird in this country, although it breeds with us: during the fummer it is found in the northern counties, and migrates fouthin autumn. Thefe birds

feed on corn, and other grain.

PLATE

fides ae

7

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129

Ei AY FE GCRXIX.

ANAS ACUTA. PIN-TAIL DUCK.

ANSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, obtufe, the edges divided into lamellate teeta : tongue

fringed and obtufe: three fore toes folitary.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND

SYNONYMS.

' Tail pointed, elongated, and black ee hind head on each fide

yer a white line ; back waved cinereous.

ANAS AcuTA: cauda acuminata elongata fubtus nigra, occipite

utrinque linea alba, dorfo cinereo undulato. . Linn. Fn, Suec. 126.

Anas cauda forcipata pedibus longiore, macula alarum cupreo-fufca. Kram, el. p. 340.

Anas longicauda. Bri. av. 6. p. 369. n. 16. #. 34. f. 1.2,

Anas Seevogel. Aldr. Orn. 3. p. 229.

Canard 4 longue queue. Buff. Hi. Nai. 9. p. 199. t, 13.-~Pi, Enl, N. 954.

B2 SEA

PLAT E) 4CXXIXx,

SEA PHEASANT, or CRAKER. Ray, av. p. 147. A. 3. PINCTAYD. «Ardts Zool: 2. p. 566: 2. 500; Brit. Zool. on 232.

A native of Europe, Afia, and America. Sometimes thefe birds appear in {mall flocks on the Englith coafts during the winter feafon, but depart again to the northward early in the {pring. ‘They are feen at this feafon in Sweden and Denmark, and are fuppofed to breed in the north of thofe kingdoms. They abound throughout the Ruffian territories as far as Kamtfchatka, at which latter place they breed and live till the approach of winter. According to Decouver, the {fpecies appears at particular feafons, in troops of feveral hundred together,’ on the borders of the river Don. It is likewife faid to breed at Hudfon’s Bay, in America.

The male of the Pintail Duck is an interefting bird, poffeffing, in addition to a beautifully varied plumage, a peculiar degree of elegance in its manners and general afpeét. Its length is twenty-eight inches, and weight twenty-four ounces. The female, as ufual in the duck tribe, fmaller, and more dufky, and is in particular diftinguifhed by having a {pot of flraw-colour on the wing initead of violet. The young males remain of a greyifh brown, not very unlike the plumage of the females, till the {pring after they are hatched, when they affume their proper plumage. The flefh is excellent,

PLATE

PiU ATR’ (CORRS:

CORVUS MONEDULA, JACKDAW.

PiIcz.

' GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, acutely edged: noftrils covered with fetaceous re- cumbent feathers: tongue cartilaginous and bifid: feet formed for

walking. SPECIFIC CHARACTER

AND

SYNONYMS, Blackifh brown; hind head hoary : front, wings, and tail black.

CoRVUS MONEDULA : fufco nigricans, occipite incano, fronte alis caudaque nigris. Gmel. Syft. Nat. 1. p. 367— : Linn, Sy. 1. p. 156. 6.—Fn. Suec. No. 89. Cornix garrula. Kein, av. p. 59. 4. Dohle. Gunth. Neft. und Eyer. p. 51. #4. 11. Taccola. Cit. uc. Sard. p. 72. Mulacchia hera. Zznnan. Uov. p. 71. t. 10. fi 62. dJackdaw. <Aré?. Zool, 2. p. 251. C. Br. Zool, 1; No. 81. te 34,

The

Pou Te “Ck.

The Jackdaw, one of the moft familiar and well-known birds of its tribe inthis country, does not appear to be by any means fo abundant throughout the reft of Europe as fome others which are lefs frequent with us. In England they aie feen at all feafons; in France and Germany, which countries they inhabit hkewife, they are migratory. In Sweden and Denmark they are pretty conftant inhabitants. The {pecies occurs alfo in the weftern part of Siberia, and a fuppofed

variety extends as far as Perfia.

» +

In a wild flate, the haunts of this bird are the moft retired places among rocks, or ruined edifices, inthe cavities of which they con- ftrué their nefts : occafionally they build in trees, but not commonly. Their eggs, from five to fix in number, are of a paler colour, and

have a {maller number of fpots, than the hooded crow.

This fpecies feeds on infeéts, grain, and feeds. It is of a docile difpofition, and may be eafily rendered tame, but invariably retains its pilfering inclinations even ina ftate of domeftication. The note of this bird is very peculiar :—an ejaculation of the words Jakdaw, Jakdaw, not indiftin€ly articulated, and repeated at regular intervals ;

this note is often heard while the bird is on the wing,

FLATE

Pik 2. GAX XI.

PERDIX RUFA. RED-LEGGED PARTRIDGE.

GALLINE.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, and ftrong: noftrils with a prominent margin: erbita

papillous: legs naked, and moftly armed with a {pur.

SPECIFIC. CHARMETER AND

SYNONYMS.

Legs and bill fanguineous : chin white, furrounded with a black band, and {potted with white.

fA RUFA. Lath. Ind. Orn. 647. n. 12. |

TETRAO RUFUS: pedibus roftroque fanguineis, gula alba cinéta ,. _ facia Sol albo-punttata. Kram. el. n. 357.

a by 6. | TETRAO RUFUS: eaneteus cinereis, fuperiore medictate hinc inde rufis. Linn. Fn. Suec. 171.

Perdix greca. Briff- av... p. 241. 2.12. 1.23. f. 1

Bartavelle. Buff. Hift. Nat. 2. p. 420.

RED PARTRIDGE. Albin. av. 1. p. 276.

GREEK PARTRIDGE, or Great Red Partridge. W7/]. Orn, p. 169.

This

PLATE CXXXIL

This is a bird of con%iderable beauty, and is found in fuch vaft abundance in the ifland of Guernfey, as to have obtained the appel- Jation of Guernfey Partridge. Birds of the fame fpecies have been alfo fhot in a wild ftate on the coafts cf Norfolk, Kent, and Suffolk, which latter circumftances tend, in our minds, more fully to eftablifh its claim to a place in the Britifh Fauna, than its being an indigenous inhabitant of Guernfey ifland. Some attempts have been made to naturalize the fpecies in the fouthern counties of England, which have not, however, been ultimately attended with the fuccefs antici- pated. The flefh is in much efteem, and the birds, for this reafon, are often brought over to England from Guernfey, or, in times of

peace, from France, to fupply the tables of the affluent.

Throughout the whole of the fouth of Europe, and alfo in Afia and Africa, thefe birds occur in the greateft plenty ; fo much, indeed, that in fome of the Greek iflands, the natives deftroy as many of their eggs as poflible, in order to diminilh their numbers; a precaution highly neceffary for the prefervation of their corn-harvefts, which often fuftain vaft injury from their depredations, as thefe birds affo- ciate in immenfe flocks, and fubfift principally on grain during that feafon. In many refpeéts, their manners accord with thofe of the common partridge, though, in the latter particular, they differ materially, the partridge being a folitary bird; and it is ob- fervable likewile, that the Red-legged Partridges occafionally perch on trees, whichis altogether unufual with the common kind. There

appears to be two or more varicties of this {pecies of partridge,

PLATE

fd oe law mis i « Get Ren \ ; (Lk % , oe / 4 , 4 . : i . . 7 a ; ; f i e \ on 4) ? iH y 2 tay 4 ' f F e if \ f FA Pa eae / ¥ wh ce Bi { ) Iu (te t . 4 i Heh Le’ \ \ ¢ ¥ “4 . : AP Kee | j re ( ¢ wy 4 fi sie my 4 t * ' hl \

0 ie

PLATE CXXXII.

ANAS CLANGULA. GOLDEN EYE DUCK. ANSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, obtufe, the edges divided into lamellate teeth : tongue fringed and obtufe: three fore toes conneéted, the hind one folitary.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS.

Varied with black and white: head tumid, and violet; at each cor~

ner of the mouth a large white fpot.

ANAS CLANGULA: fjgro alboque varia, capite tumido violaceo : finu oris macula alba, Linn. Fn. Suec. 192.—<

| It. oel. 49.

CLANCULA. Geffn. av. 119.-—Aldr. of. 3. ps 224

Garrot. Buff. Hift. Nat. 9. p. 222. pli enl. n. 802.

Kobelente. Frifch. av. t..183. 184. i

Quakerente. Bloch Befch. der Berl. Naturf. Fr. 4. p. 599%. 0. 9, t AT. fig. 1s 2.

Smaller Reddith Duck. Wéail. Orn. p. 369.

Ray av. po 148. n. 1. Vou, VI. + GonpEn

PLATE CAXXIL

GOLDEN EYE. Albin. 1.1. 96. Arét, Zool. 2. p. 557. ne 486: Brit. Zool. 2.n. 276.

This fpecies.of Duck rather exceeds the common fize, meafuring nearly twenty inches in length, and weighing thirty ounces. This relates to the male only, the. female being much fmaller. The latter differs hkewife very confiderably in the colour of its plumage, which is principally of an obfcure brown, varied with black and afh.’ The head is dark and reddifh, the breaft and belly white; the middle quill- feathers are alfo white, but the reit of the wings, except the coverts an@ fcapulars, in witch the grey prevails, is black. The tail is of the latt-

nentioned colour; the legs dufky.

The Golden Eye is of the migratory kind, and yifits us only in the winter, at which feafon it is feen in fmall flocks on many of our fea- coails. In the fpring thefe birds retire northward, remaining, during the breeding feafon, in Ruffia, Norway, and Sweden. In America it is found throughout the fummer in Hudfon’s Bay, where it is obferved to frequent frefh water lakes. Its principal food confifts of fhell-fith, frogs, and other reptiles, mice, &c. The neft, which is compofed of grafs, and lined with feathers, is of a rounded form, the eggs from fevem to ten in number, and white. Linnzus tells us, this fpecies fometimes builds in trees, a circumftance rather fingular, but neverthelefs, we believe, correétly ftated, as fome other {pecies’ of the duck tribe have been known to build occafionally in‘the fame:

4

or fimilar fituations.

PLATE

PLATE CXXXIU.

tale ees CARBO.

CORVORANT.

ANSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill ftraight, hooked at the point, and furnifhed with a nail : nof- trils an obliterated flit : face rather naked ; legs equally balancing the body : toes four,’ palmated.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER Pies AND SYNONYMS. Tail Polaoed - body black ; : head fubcrefted.

Peurcanvs Cargo: cauda rotundata, corpore nigro, capite oy 4 fubcriftato. Linn. Fn. Suec. 145.

Seismetile bi intel au. 683. |

Corvus aquaticus. Aldr. Orn. 3. p. 261. te 263.

Cormoran, Buff: Hift. Nat. 8. p. 310. t. 26.

Corvorant, Ar. Zool. 2. p. 581. n. 509.

1 Brit, Zot 2m 291,

“aye C2 The

PLATE CXXXIII.

The Corvorant meafures three feet in length, in breadth four feet,

and weighs feven pounds.

Towards the northern parts of Europe thefe birds are more abund- ant than in the fouth. They breed in Kamtfchatka, Greenland, Ice- land, and other countries of the north, and from their habits of life are almoft conflantly found contiguous to the fea. Their breeding- places are the higheft and moft inacceflible cliffs impending over the fea hore. It does not appear that they evince much ingenuity in the formation of a neft, and they lay only about three or four eggs, which are the fize of thofe of a goofe, and of a pale green colour. The Coryorant is an extremely voracious bird, and preys chiefly on fifh, in purfuit of which it 1s continually feen fwimming and darting into the water. The flefh is very indifferent, and eaten only by the Greenlanders, who, however, are by no means partial to it, and their eggs are fo difgufting that they are never eaten. The skins, in common with thofe of moft other birds, furnith the natives with an article of drefs. In Britain the Corvorant is yncommon on the fouthern coaft, but is ftill more abundant on the fea coafts of the

northern counties.

In China the Corvorant is trained up for the purpofe of fifhing, in which employ they are very ufeful to the fifhermen; many of whom keep feveral of them, and derive a good livelihood from. their labours. Thefe birds are taught to plunge into the water at their mafter’s command, and feize the fifh in his bill, or with the bill and talons together, and bring it to his mafter; or if the fith be too large, two of the Coryorants affift each other. To enfure obedience, it is however neceflary to faften a ring round their necks, which prevents them trom {wallowing their prize ; and when the bufinefs of fithing is over for the day, the mafter takes off the ring, and rewards them

with

PLATE CXXXIII.

with a fhare of the fpoil. According to Willughby, this mode of taking fifh was pra€tifed formerly in England: the Corvorants were : inftruéted to dive into the water, and after laying the captive fith at

the feet of his mafter, perch upon hisarm. The beft writers give

little credit to this account, or confider it as a rare inftance, at leaft,

of the docile difpofition of the Corvorant. A leather thong was

faftened round the throat of the bird, which anfwered the fame pugs

pofe as the ring put round their neck by the Chinefe,

PLATE

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en sedelgull Wot gaibyoaa A Soa 528 to

7 inxxx) ITAI4

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to dia svitges sdf gaivel 19ie baw rete neat evig weview Sed odT ar id a oa tft aid Po oot sdy cfieal % soneflin ae1 55 Si digas 1" annowae tt fibers sil aes) iyaods vwdtes A tnwzarid ied Yo soiient S stioob sift Yo”

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134:

rey PLATE CXXXIV: MOTACILLA TROGLODYTES,

WREN.

PASSERES.

au GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill fubulate, and ftraight: the mandibles nearly equal: noftrils oval; tongue lacerated at the end. bry \

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS.

Grey : eyebrows white: wings waved with black and cinereous.

MoraciLLA TROGLODITES ; grifea, alis nigris cinereoque undu- latis, Linn. Fn. Suec. 261, Scop. ann. 1. n. 239. Nozem. nederl, Vogel. t. 5%. Regulus. Briff. av. 8. p. 425. n. 24 Reattino. Olin. ucc. t. 6. Roitelet. Buff. pl. enl. n. 651. f. 2+ Zaunkoenig. Frifch. av. t. 24. f. 3. WREN. Ardé?. Zool. 2. p. 414, mt 822. Ray av. p, 80. 2, 11. Brit. Zool. \. n. 154. This

PLATE CXXXIV.

This pretty tittle bird is efteemed the {malleft of the European fpe- cies, the Golden Crefted Wren excepted. It inhabits the temperate parts of northern Europe, and the fouth ef Afia.

"The Wren remains in Britain throughout the year. The neft is of an oval form, compofed of mofs lined with feathers, and having a {mall entrance in the middle. The female has two broods annually, one in April, the other in June, at each time laying from ten to fix- teen eggs, which are of a white colour, and marked at the end with reddifh. Its neft is commonly found affixed againft outhoufes, or old walls, or, if built in the woods, ftands generally on a low ftump

among bufhes near the ground.

The note of this bird is.a pleafing warble, heard.at all feafons of the year, but only in the day-time.

PLATE

wy

Oe

SNS ————$—

<<

Pay A TE “ORXXKV:

ANAS FERRUGINEA, FERRUGINOUS DUCK.

ANSERES,

CENERTC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, obtufe, the edges divided into lamellate teeth: tongue

fringed and obtufe ; three fore toes folitary.

SPECIFIC CHARAGCE iy AND

SYNONYMS.

Chefnut, breaft and belly paler; bill dilated and rounded at the tip; and with the legs blueifh.

ANAS FERRUGINEA: {padicea, roftro dilatata et apice rotundato pedibufque czrulefcentibus, Gel. Linn. Sy/t, Nat. 528. 4, 99.

ANAS RITULA, Fn. Suec. n. 134,

FERRUCGINOUS Duck. Aré?. Zoo. 2.p, 576. N, Lath. Sym. 3:2. p. 26. 2. 71,

Vou. VI, D This’

PLA T EB CexXy.

This Duck is about the middle fize, meafuring in length filteen inches, and weighing twenty ounces. ‘The fpecies has been found in the Swedifh rivers, and in Denmark, but ver? rarely. A folitary f{pecimen was killed in Lincolnfhire fome years ago, a circumflance

recorded by Mr. Pennant in his Britifh Zoology.

,

PLATE

{36

PLAT BE CXxXxXw.

ALAUDA ARBOREA, WOOD-LARK.

PASSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill cylindric, fubulate, and ftraight: the mandibles-equal, and a little gaping at the bafe: tongue bifid: hind claw ftraight, and longer

than the toe.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS.

Head furrounded by a white annular fillet.

ALAUDA ARB OREA: capite annulari alba cin&to. Linn. Fn. Suee. 3.—Szcop. Ann. 1. n. 186. -Alauda re€tricibus fufcis: prima oblique dimidiato-alba, fecunda, tertia quartaque macula alba cuneiformi. Jax. Suec. 1. m. 192. Alauda arberea. Briff: av. 3. p. 340. n. 2. 7.20.f. 1. Alouette de bois ou Cujelier. Buff. Hift. Nat. 5. 9. 25.—Pl, enl, 660, f"2s Wooptark. Arél. Zoel. 2. p. 395. Ray av. p. 69. n. &- Albin. av. 1. t, 42. D2 The

Pia TE. CXXAVI.

The Woodlark is believed to be a general inhabitant of Europe end Siberia, extending as far as Kamtfchatka. In its general appear- ance it affimilates much more with the fkylark, than in its manners of life, and is obferved to be far lefs common than that {pecies. The fkylark delights in the open fields and meadows, the other is a more retired and timid bird, prefers woody fituations, and often perches on trees, which the fkylark never does. “Vhe Woodlark whiftles like the blackbird, and, like the fkylark, emits its note in flight ; it fings

alfo during the night while perched on the boughs of trees.

Thefe birds build their neft on the ground, and lay five eggs of a light colour, blotched with brown: the neft, like that of the fkylark, is compofed of dry grafs, lined with foft hair. It pairs earlier in the

feafon than the fkylark, and has two broods in the year.

PLAT

137]

PLA T E-rCxxXvit,

PICUS MEDIUS. MIDDLE SPOTTED WOODPECKER,

Pics.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill angular, ftraight, cuneated at the tip: noftrils covered with recumbent fetaceous feathers: tongue round, worm-fhaped, very long, and offeous, mifhle, daggered, and befet at the point with briftles bent back: tail feathers ten in number, hard, rigid, and

pointed ; feet climbers,

SPECIFIC CHARACTER ha AND

SYNONYMS.

Variegated with black and white: crown crimfon: {pace round

the eyes and fides of the neck white.

Picus mMepDius: albo nigroque varius, criffo pileoque rubris. Linn. Syft. 1. p. 176. 18.— Fn. Suec. No. 101.— Gmel. Syft, 1. p. 486.3—Lath. Ind, Orn. 229. ee ee

Picus varius minor. Ray. Syn. p. 43. 8.

Picus varius. Briff. 4. p. 38. 14.7.2.f. 1.

wy) pi

Pi A-Avs CXXXVIL

Der mittlere Buntf{pechte. Vor. t. 37

Pic varié 4 téte rouge. Buff. Pl. Enl. 611.

MippLE SPOTTED WOODPECKER. Arét. Zool. 2. p. 278. aa Brit. Zool. 1. No. 86. t. 37%

A native of Europe; in its manners of life refembling the reft o its tribe, living chiefly in woods, and fubfifting principally on es which it picks out of the trunks of decayed trees. Its length is about

eight inches and a half.

Whether the Middle and the Greater Spotted Woodpeckers are of the fame {pecies, differing only in the tranfition of the plumage from an incomplete toa more perfeéi flate, or that it is in reality diftinét, appears to have excited confiderable doubts in the opinions of ornitho- logifts ; fome contending they are, and others that they are not the iame. It is poflible the former furmife may be correét, though at the fame time it cannot but be obferved, that the chara€ters of the two kinds appear fufficiently conftant and obvious to authorife a different conclufion. The principal difinétion that prevails in the two birds confifls in the Middle Spotted Woodpecker having the whole crown of the head crimfon, while in the Greater Spotted, the crimfon {pace is confined to a broad-band on the hind head. The latter bird is rather larger, and meafures half an inch more in the length than the other. xcept the diflerence above-mentioned, the plumage in both

pretty nearly alike,

PLATE

138

PA ds, USI

FRINGILLA SPINUS, SISKIN,

PASSERES,

GENERIC CHARACTER,

Bill conic, flraight, and pointed.

NPECIRIC CHARAC KE R AND

SYNONYMS.

Quill feathers yellow in the middle, the firt four without {pois :

tail feathers yellow at the bafe, and at the tip black.

FRINGILLA SPINUS: remigibus medio luteis: primis quatuor immaculatis, reCtricibus bafi flavis apice nigris. Linn. Fn. Suec. 237, Scop. Ann.1. n. 222.

Acanthus avicula. Ge/n. av. 1.

Ligurinus. Briff: av. 3. p. 65. n, 4%.

Tarin. Buff. Hift. Nat. 4. p. 221,

Abadavine, Albin. av. 3. t. 76.

Zeichen, ° Frifch. av. t. 1 \g

Georg. it. p. 174,

Siskin, or Aberdevine. Brit. Zool, 129... 53e

‘i

PLATE CXXXVII.

The Sifkin isa pretty little {pecies of the finch tribe, about the fize of the common linnet: the crown of the male is black, the back greenifh, and the throat brown: in the female the head and neck is greenifh afh, with brown fpots, and the chin whitifh. The plumage of the male is brighter than that of the female, though in other refpecis

their appearance is not materially different.

This bird is common throughout moft of the temperate countries of Europe: it occurs alfo in the weftern and fouthern parts of Ruffia, but does not inhabit Siberia. In the winter feafon it vilits Britain, and departs again in Spring. It feeds chiefly on feeds of various kinds, is of a docile difpofition, and breeds freely with the common canary-bird. Its note is indifferent, notwithRanding many rank if

among the birds of fong.

PLATE

139

PLATE CXXXIX.

PROCELLARIA PELAGICA,’ STORMY PETREL.

ANSERES.

~~

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill toothlefs, a little comprefled, and hooked at the point: man. gibles equal : noftrils cylindrical, tubular, truncated, and placed at the bafe of the bill: feet palmated, three toed forward, and armed

with a fpur behind initead of back toe.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS. “39

Black : rump white.

PROCELLARIA PELAGICA: nigra uropygio albo. Linn. Fn. Suete 143.—AG. Stockh. 1745. p. 938.—Gmel. Linths

| Sys Nats 2. Tone Ge pe 56. ns We

Procellaria. Briff. av. 6. p. 140. m.1.4.13.f0 1.

Oifeau de tempete. Buff. Hift. Nat. 9. p. 327. t. 23.——Pl, enhe n 993. a

TOL. VI. E PETERE Ms

PLA TE « CKRXIX PeETERELs Cluf. exot. 368. Damp. Voy. 3. p. 97+ Stormfinch, or little Petterel. Ald. av. 3. t. 92. Will. Orn. p. $95. Stormy Petret. Arét. Zool. 2. p. 536. n. 464.

This is our {malleft kind of Petre}, being in fize not larger than a fwallow, and meafuring in length only fix inches. ‘Thefe birds are feldom feen on land except in the breeding feafon, but are met with in moft latitudes at fea; large flocks of them often fettle about fhips to reft themfelves, efpecially in the Atlantic ocean. When they fly low, and hover clofe round the ftern of the fhip, it is confidered by

mariners as the certain prelude of a ftorm.

The Stormy Petrel fwims and dives extremely well, and is eb- ferved to remain much longer under water than almoft any other bird. They are generally on the wing, fkimming the furface of the waves, or dipping into the water, It is aftonifhing to fee with what a perfe&t degree of fafety this little creature can brave the perils of the tempeft, gliding with the utmoft velocity over the furface of the waves, then plunging into the deep, and rifing again upon the fummits of the

billows.

The food of thefe little birds appear to be the fmall fifh and marine worms which they catchin {wimming or diving. In the night-time they are very noify, though feldom heard in the day, unlefs in cloudy weather. They are fuppefed to breed in the northern ifles of Scot-

land;

Poisak TE OXRMIX,

fand, Stragglers have been occafionally found inland, but very rarely. We poflefs one fpecimen, formerly in the Leverian col- leGion, which is afirmed to have been fhot at Walthamftow, in Effex,

E2 PLATE

Dy eet on haa yl eloo taitsvad sift ni mel ener sli sie Hall Si pwetlonedila WE a ws eed er hy tat: brat ite vi

£40

Po 1 RL. ANAS FULIGULA,

TUFTED DUCK.

ANSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill convex, obtufe, the edges divided into lamellate teeth : tongue

fringed and obtufe : three fore toes connected ; hind toe folitary.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND SYNONYMS, Creft pendent; body black: abdomen and wing {pot white.

ANAS FULIGULA: crifta dependente, corpore nigro, abdomine {peculoque alarum albis. Linn, Fn. Suet. 132. Scop. ann. 1, 1. 18.-——Kram. ele p. 341.0. 12. Anas fuligula, Gefa. tv. 107. Aldr. Orn. 3, p. 221. Murillon, Bug. Hift. Nat. 9. ps 227. 231. t. 15.—PI, Enl. mn 1081. | TuFTEN Duck. Aré. Zool. ®. p. 573. C, Br. Zool. 2, n. 274.

A winter

PLA.TE CX,

A winter inhabitant of the Britifh ifles. This bird is fixteen inches in length; the male in general black, finely gloffed with purple and green, with the belly white, and the creft long and pendent. The female is like the male, except in having the colour of the plumage more inclining to brown, and being deftitute of a creft. Inthe young birds, the head, neck, and breaft are chefnut ; the back, wings, and

tail black.

The Tufted Duck inhabits moft parts of Europe, and northern Afia, vifiting, like many other of the Duck tribe, the fouthern cli- mates in winter, and retiring northward in the fummer to breed;

the flefh is excellent.

PLATE

PL, AT Be CXL

TRINGA INTERPRES, TURNSTONE.

GRALLA.

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill roundifh, as long as the head: noftrils fmall, linear: tongue flender: feet four toed: the hind toe of one joint, and raifed from

the ground.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER AND

SYNONYMS.

Legs red: body black, variegated with white, and ferruginous ;

breaft and belly white.

TRINGAINTERPRES: pedivus rubris, corpore nigro, albo ferru- gineoque vario, pettore abdomineque albo, Linn. It. Gotl, 217—Fn. Suec, 178.—-Gmel, Linn. Syft. Nat. t. 1. p. 2. p. 671. 1. Ae

Le Coulon-chaud. Brif/. Orn. 5. p. 182. 1.

Le Tourne-pierre. Buff. Oi/. 8: p. 130. pi. 10.

- Turnstone, or Sea DoTTEREL. ay Syn. p. 112. A. 5.

Lath, Gen. Syn, 3. p. 188. n. 37.

This

PLA TE. Oe, This fpecies of Sandpiper is about eight inches and a half in length. It inhabits the fea-coafts both of Europé and America, and has obtained the name of Turnftone from its peculiar method of

turning up the ftones on the fea-fhore by means of its bill, when in

fearch of the fmaller littoral worms and fifhes on which it feeds.

In Britain thefe birds are local, and almoft confined to the moft re- mote and unfrequented fhores. It occurs at the extremity of the weftern promontory about Penzance, on the northern fhores of Wales, and in the Hebrides. They build enly a flight neft, which is depofited on the ground, and lay four eggs of an olive colour, {potted with black. Thefe birds are feen moft commonly in flocks of three. or

four together.

PLATE

V4 j ; : F Ut mae MAAS. an + aie : : ie i t i Ai : : ee AH etal CO, Aled aA, OB by | Lid WAyiv aba eglar NA Ce el .

SS

142

= YW

Pi) A Bex eM.

FRINGILLA CQELEBS.

CHAFFINCH. | PASSERES.

GENERIC CHARACTER.