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WESTERN HEMISPHERE OF TYPUS ORBIS TERRARUM From Oitelius loSo. ami Hakliivt. 1589

BRITISH COLUMBIA

FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES TO THE

PRESENT

By E. O. S. SCHOLEFIELD

PROVINCIAL LIBRARIAN AND ARCHIVIST

ILLUSTRATED

VOLUME I

THE S. J. CLARKE PUBLISHING COMPANY

VANCOUVER WINNIPEG MONTREAL CHICAGO

CONTENTS

PAGE LIST OP AUTHORITIES XV

CHAPTER I

PREHISTORIC NORTHWEST AMERICA 1

CHAPTER II

APOCRYPHAL VOYAGES H>

' CHAPTER III

SPANISH EXPLORATIONS -V-i

CHAPTER IV

RUSSIAN EXPLORATIONS 49

C-H AFTER V

CAPTAIN JAMES COOK 7.'!

('IT APT EH VI

TDK M AKITIM ): l-l KTU ADKHS Ill

f'TTAPTKR VTT

THE NOOTKA SOtTND CONTROVERSY 1 ii")

en M'TKi: x'lTi

CAI'TAi'n GEORGE VANCOUVER 157

TTTAPTER IX

SIR ALEXANDER MACKENZIE ^99

r]]\VTEU X

SIMON ERASER 23;">

ix

847337

CHAPTER XI

NEW CALEDONIA 283

CHAPTER XII THE Hudson's bay company 327

CHAPTER XIII

THE OREGON QUESTION 427

CHAPTER XIV

THE POUNDING OF VICTORIA 457

CHAPTER XV

THE COLONY OP VANCOUVER ISLAND 497

CHAPTER XVI

REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT 529

CHAPTER XVII

VANCOUVER ISLAND IN TRANSFORMATION 557

CHAPTER XVIII

THE NATIVE RACES OP BRITISH COLUMBIA 573

CHAPTER XIX

MEDICAL 593

CHAPTER XX

THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OP BRITISH COLUMBIA 623

CHAPTER XXI

BANKS AND BANKING 643

APPENDIX

CONTAINING PROOFS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 653

INDEX 683

X

ILLUSTRATIONS

Western Hemisphere of Typus Orbis Terrarum Frontispiece

Giovanni Martines, After 1560. Chart One of Atlas 7 1

Prom the Globe of F. Sohoner. 1520 3

Manuscript Map of 1530 and Map of P. de Furlani, 1560 7

Map of Euysch in edition of Ptolemaeus, 1508, and Frobisher map, 1578 8

Maps by Judaeis, 1593; Herrera, 1600; Sanson, 1691, and Bcbaim, 1492. 9

Eastern Asia after Bering, 1728 10

Maps by Bellin and Buache, 1748, 1750. 1775 11

Maps by Jefferys, 1758 and 1764 12

Russian Maps, 1 75S and 1775 13

General Map of Discoveries of Admiral De Fonte 15

French Map of North America, circa, 1775 17

Title Page of Purchas, His Pilgrimea 23

Early Map of Vancouver Island and Entrance to the Strait of Juan De Fuca 33

Vista De Lo Interior De La Gala De Los Amigos en La Entrada De Nutka 41

First Spanish Chart of Strait of Juan De Fuca, 1790 44

Map of North America, circa, 1625 49

Map of Western North America, circa, 1775 73

H. M. S. Resolution 76

Autograph Letter by Captain Cook 78

General Map of the Discoveries of Admiral De Fonte and Other Navigators by De I'Isle,

1752 80

A Man and Woman of Nootka Sound 84

Mount St. Elias and the New Eddystone 94

Birthplace of Captain Cook ; Death of Captain Cook 105

Alexander Dalrymplc 116

Maps, Port Etches and Rose 's Harbour 118

Track of the Snow Experiment 119

Mearcs ' Long Boat Entering the Strait of Juan De Fuca 121

Maps of N. W. Coast of America, by Capts. Robert Funter and Janips Hanna 122

Sketch of RaftCove in Queen Charlotte Sound, by Robert Funter 125

Callieum and Maquilla 128

Discovery on the ■Rocks in Queen Charlotte's Sound; Launch of the A^or<^ West America. . 131

Si

Signatures of early Captain-Traders 133

View of Spanish Fort, Nootka Sound, from Contemporary Drawing, 1793 135

Spanish Insult to British Flag, 1789 144

Captain George Vancouver, K. N 157

Captain Gray in the Straits of Juan De Fuca ; at the Falkland Islands; In Winter Quarters

at Clayoquot ; at Whampoa 160

The Ships Columbia, Washington, Hancock 16:^

Falls at Indian River Post, Burrard Inlet Iti4

Alexandro Malaspina 166

Spanish Ship Atrevida on Northwest Coast 167

E. Haswell, C. Bulfinch, Jos. Banxell 169

Galiano Island ^ ' 1

The Country of New Albion 1'8

Friendly Cove and Salmon Cove l&O

Macuina and Tetaeu 182

Maps, Milbank 's Sound and Friendly Cove 1S4

A View of the Habitations in Nootka Sound 190

Letter by George Vancouver 192

Celebration in Honour of the Coming of Age of the Daughter of the Famous Nootka Chief,

Maquinna, about 1792 I'*'

Petersham Churchyard, Surrey, England 19'*

Captain George Vancouver's Tomb and Memorial Tablet 19'

Simon Frascr of the NorthWest Company 235

Port Grahame, Hudson 's Bay Co. Pctst on Finlay Kiver 283

Fort McLeod, founded 1805 -^^

Hudson 's Bay Co. 's Post, near Fraser Lake, founded 1 806 287

John Tod ^^^

Duiivegan, Hudson 's Bay Post, Peace River; Episcopal Church Mission at Lesser Slave Lake 493

The Home of Dr. W. F. Tolmie *^*^

Fort Victoria *5'

Wharf Street, 1867, and Fort Street '*''^

472 The Prison, Victoria '

Cheslakees' Village in Johnstone's Straits and Village of the Friendly Indians -19.?

Richard Blanshard, Arthur E. Kennedy, Sir Anthony Musgrave, Sir James Douglas 510

53" First School on Vancouver Island

First Legislative Council of Vancouver Island, 1856

547 Originally Supreme Court, Later First Museum

View of Victoria in 1860 '^

Bird 's-Eye View of Victoria in 1S78

564 Early Views. Government Street, Victoria

Old Views of Victoria

Old A'iew of James Bridge, Victoria "*

xii

Type8 of British Columbia Indians 57.'i

Indian Fish Caches 580

The Inside of a House iu Nootka Sound 582

Missions and Their Congregations 584

Kincolith Church and School; Nishka Chiefs and Leaders 587

Section of Kincolith ; The New Mode of Travel, Archdeacon CoUison 's Launch, The Dawn,

arrived in Harbour '. 589

Progress in Education G23

Angela College, Victoria; Administration Bifilding, Virtoria 620

University Site Commissioners, 1910 634

Vancouver 643

Vancouver, City, Council Meeting After the Fire of June 13, 1886, and J. W. Home's Real

Estate Office 645

Hastings Street and Granville Street, Vancouver 646

North Vancouver from Ferry Wharf and Vancouver Harbour and Shipping 647

Twin Falls, Yoho Valley; Siwash Eoek, English Bay, Vancouver 649

*:i

LIST OF AUTHORITIES

Adam (G. Mercer). From Savagery to Civ- ilisation. Toronto, 1885. Outline history of Canadian Literature, 1887. Adams (E. D.). Influence of Grenville on

Pitt's Foreign Policy, 1787-1798. (Nootka)

Wash., 1904. Adams (Joseph). Ten thousand miles through

Canada. Lend., 1912. Aflalo (F. G.) Sunset playgrounds, fishing

days in Canada. Lond., 1909. Aflalo {F. G.) Ed. Wilderness and the Jungle.

Lond., 1912. Alaska. Canada's dismemberment. Niagara-

on-the-Lake, 1904. Alaskan boundary tribunal proceedings. Wash.

Govt., 1904. (U. S. Congress 58. 2 Sen.

Doc, 162). Allen (A. J.). Ten years in Oregon. Ithaca,

N. Y., 1848. Allen (Alexander). Cariboo and the mines of

B. C. Ms. Alston (E. Graham). Handbook on B. C. and

Vancouver Island. Lond., 1870. Amery (L. S.). Union and Strength. Lond.,

1912. Amoretti (Charles). Voyage de la mer At-

lantique a I'ocean Pacifique par le Capi-

taine Laurent Ferrer Maldonado, I'an

1588. Plaisance, Magno, 1812. Amos (Andrew). Report of trials relative tn

the destruction of Selkirk's settlement on

Red river. Lend., 1820. Amundsen (Roald). "North-west Passage,"

voyage of the "Gjoa," 1903-07. 2 vols.

I.ond., 1908. Anderson (Alexander Caulfield). Dominion

at the West. Victoria, 1872. British Columbia, an appendix to the B. C.

Directory, 1882-3. Victoria, 1883. Handbook and map to the gold region of

Eraser's and Thompson's Rivers. San

Fran., 1858. Indian tribes of British North America.

(Historical Mag., March, 1863, 73-81).

North Western America. (Canadian Nat-

turalist, 1876, N. S. v. 8, 135-156). North-west Coast History. Ms.

Anderson (James). Letter to Sir George Simpson. (Lond. Geog. Socy. Jour., XXVI). Sawney's letters and Cariboo rhymes. Toronto, 1895.

Anderson (John J.). Did Louisiana extend to the Pacific? N. Y., 1882.

Annals of British legislation. Lond., 1856, etc.

Applegate (Jesse). Views of Oregon history. Ms.

Archives parlementaires de 1787 a i860, Recueil complet des debats legislatifs et politiques des chambres fran^aises. Pre- miere serie. Tome XV. Assemblee Nationale Constituante du 21 Avril 1790 au 30 Mai. 1790. (Nootka) Paris, 1883.

Argonaut. Statement of all the facts relative to Nootka Sound. Lond., 1790. A continuation of statement. Lond., 1790.

Armstrong (A. W.). Oregon. Chicago, 1857.

Arrowsmith (John). Map of B. C. and Van- couver Island. Lond., 1859.

Atahualpa (Voyage of the ship). Extracts from a journal . voyage from

Boston to the N. W. Coast. (Collections of the Mass. Hist. Socy., 1804).

Aube (Th.). Vancouver et la Colombie An- glaise. Paris, 1877.

Aubertin (J. J.). Fight with Distances, the States, Canada, B. C, etc. 1888.

Auckland (Wm., Lord). Journal and corres- pondence of. (Nootka Sound). Lond., 1861.

B

Back (Capt. Sir George). Arctic land expedi- tion, 1833, 1834, and 1835. I Vol. Lond., 1836. Discovery of the North-west passage. By commander R. M'Clure, of H. M. S. In- vestigator. (Jour, of Royal Geog. Socy., 1854)-

XV

XVI

AUTHORITIES

Bacqueville de la Potherie. Histoire de I'Amerique septentrionale. Paris, 1772.

Baedeker (Karl). Dominion of Canada. Leipzig, 1907.

Bagley (C. B. ). In the beginning. Seattle, 1905.

Balch (Thomas Willing). The Alaska-Can- adian frontier. Phil., 1902.

Balfour (Henry). Haida Portrait Mask. (Man., \'ol. 7).

Ballantyne (Robert M.). Hudson's Bay. Edin., 1S48. Handbook to the new gold fields, Fraser and Thompson Rivers. Edin., 1858.

Ballou (William T.). Adventures. Ms.

Bancroft (George). Memorial on the Canal de Haro, N. p. N. D.

Bancroft (Hubert Hovpe). History of Alaska, 1730-1885. San Fran., i886. History of British Columbia, 1792-1887. San

Fran., 1887. History of California. History of Nevada. History of the Northwest Coast. 2 v. San

Fran., 1884. History of Oregon, 2 v. San Fran., 1886. History of Washington, Idaho, and Mon- tana. Native races of the Pacific States of North

.America. 5 v. N. Y., 1874-75. Popular Tribunals.

Bancroft's hand-book of mining. San Fran., 1861.

Barbeau (C. M.). The bearing of the heraldry of the Indians of the north-west coast of America upon their social organisation. (Man., vol. XII, pp. 83-90).

Barneby (W. H.). Life and labour in the Far Far West. 1884. New Far West and the Did Far East. 1889.

Barrington (Daines). Miscellanies [account of early Spanish voyages to the N. W. coast]. Lond., 1781.-

Barrow (Sir John). Voyages for the purpose of discovering a north-east, north-west, or polar passage. Lond., 1818. A letter to the Geographical Society con- cerning a north-west passage. (Jour, of the Royal Creog. Socy. Lond., 1836, PP- 34-37)

Barrows (William). Oregon, the struggle for possession. Bost., 1884.

Bate (Mark). History of the Bastion. Nan- aimo, N. D.

Baumgarten (Hermann). Geschichte Spa- nien's zur Zeit dcr franzoesi?chen Revolu- tion. (Nootka) Berlin, 1861.

Bayley (C. A.). Vancouver Island early life.

Ms. Baylies (Francis). Exploration of the north- west coast. (Report 35 H. of R. 19th Cong.

1st Sess., Jan. 16, 1826) Wash., 1826. Northwest Coast of America. (Report 213,

May 15, 1826). Bayly (William). Astronomical observations

in ships Resolution and Discovery, 1776-

80. Lond., 1782. Bealby (J. T.). Fruit ranching in British

Columbia. Toronto, 1909. Beaman (Charles C. ). Our new north-west.

(Harper's Mag., July, 1867.) Beaufort (Capt. Francis). A letter to the

Royal Geographical Society concerning a

north-west passage. (Jour, of the Royal

Geog. Socy. Lond., 1836.) Becher (Capt. Alexander B. ). Navigation of

the Pacific ocean. Lond., i860. Beckwith (Miss M. W. ). Dance forms of the

Moqui and Kwakiutl Indians. (Proc. 15th

Inter. Congress of Americanists, Quebec,

1906, vol. 2.) Beechey (F. W. ). Voyage to the Pacific in

1825, 26, 27, 28. 2 V. Lond., 1831. Begbie (Matthew B.). Journey into the In- terior of British Columbia. (Lond. Geog.

Socy. Jour., XXXI.) 1861. Begg (Alexander). History of British Co- lumbia. Toronto, 1894. History of the North-West. 3 v. Toronto,

1894-5. Review of the Alaskan boundary question.

(Victoria, B. C, N. D.). Behring Sea. Papers relating to. Wash., 1887. Fur-seal, sea-otter and salmon fisheries regu- lations. Wash., 1896. Belcher (Sir Edward). Voyage round the

world in 1836-42. Lond., 1843. Benyowsky (Count). Memoirs and travels.

Lond., 1904. Bering Sea arbitration (reprint of letters to

the Times). Lond., 1893. Bering Sea commission. Report of. Lond.,

1892. Bezanson (A. M.). The Peace River Trail.

Edmonton [1907]. Bingley (Rev. William). Travels in North

.■\merica from modern writers. Lond.,

1821. Biographical Dictionaries. Dictionnaire his-

lorique des hommes illustrcs du Canada,

par Bibaud, 1857. Le Pantheon canadien par M. Bibaud, 1858. Canada: An Encyclopasdia, by J. C. Hopkins,

1898.

AUTHORITIES

xvu

Biographies caiiadieiines, |/.<r I'Alibe Cas-

grain, 1873. Chambers's biographical dictionary, 1902. Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Biographies et portraits, par L. O. David,

1876. Canadian portrait gallery, by J. C. Dent. Dictionary of English history, ed. by Low

and Pulling. Dictionary of national biography. Bibliotheca canadensis, by H. J. Morgan,

1867. Canadian men and women of the time, by

II. J. Morgan. Sketches of celebrated Canadians, by H. J.

Morgan, 1862. Dictionnaire historique des Canadiens de

I'ouest, par .■\. G. Morice, 1908. Biographical dictionary of well-known

British Columbians. Kerr and Begg. Cyclopa;dia of Canadian biog., by G. M.

Rose, 1886. Men of the Day. Ed. by Louis H. Tache. Les Canadiens de I'ouest, par J. Tasse, 1882. Portraits of British Americans, by \V. Not-

man, with letterpress by F. Taylor, 1865. Who's Who. London. Who's Who in Western Canada. Biographical dictionary of British Columbia. By J. B. Kerr, 1890. Bishop (Avard Langley). Hudson Bay route.

(Yale Review, April, 1912.) Bishop (Capt. Charles). Journal of a voyage to the N. W. Coast of America, in the ship "Ruby." 1794-6 (Original Mss. ). Black (C. E. D.). The Marquess of Dufferin

and Ava. Lond., 1903. Blaikie (W. G.). Summer suns in the far

west. Lond., 1890. Blake (Theodore A.). Geological features of the Northwest Coast. (American Jour, of Science and Arts. 2nd Ser., 1868.) (Jeological features of the Northwestern Coast, from straits of Juan de Fuca to parallel of 60°. (Coast Survey, 1867. Wash., 1869.) Blake (William P.). Notes on the Stickeen

River. Wash., 1868. Blanchet (Rev. F. N.). The Catliolir church in Oregon and the nurtlnvest. Ferrulale, Wash., 19 10. Blanshard (Riiliard). Vancouver Island. Despatches, 26th Dec, 1849, to 3olh Aug., 1851. New Westminster, N. D. Beam (H. J.) and Brown (A. G.). British Columbia ; its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources. Lond., 1912.

Boas (Franz). Ethnological problems in Can- ada. (Proc. of the 15th Inter. Congress of .Americanists. Quebec, 1906, vol. I.) The KwakiutI of Vancouver Island. (Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Anthrop., vol. I, p. 2, 1909.) The origin of Totemism. (Jour. .Amer.

Folk-Lore, vol. 23.) Eine Sonnensage der Tsimschian. (Zeit-

schrift fiir Ethnologie. Bd. 40.) Social organization of the KwakiutI Indians. Wash., 1897. Boas Anniversary Volume. Anthropological papers written in honour of Franz Boas, professor of anthropology in Columbia University. N. Y., 1906. Boddy (Rev. Alexander A.). By ocean, prairie and peak, journeys to B. C, etc. Lond., 1896. Bolduc (J. B. Z.). Mission de la Colombie. Lettre et journal. Quebec [184?]. Letter to Mr. Cayenne, 15 Feb., 1844. In De Smet's Oregon Missions, 51. Bompas (William C, Bishop). Diocese of

Mackenzie river. Lond., 1888. Bonar (J.). The golden coins of B. C. (Jour- nal of Canadian Bankers) Jan., 1910. Bourinot (Sir J. G.). Canada (1896).

Intellectual development of the Canadian people, 1881. Bowles (Samuel). Across the continent. Springfield, 1866. (Jur new West. Hartford, etc., 1869. Brabant (Rev. A. J.). Vancouver Island and

its Missions, 1874-1900. N. D. N. p. Breysig (Kurt). Die Amerikaner des Nordwestens und des Nordens. (Die CJeschichte der Menschheit, Erster Band. Die \'6lker Ewiger Urzeit I.) Berlin, 1907. Bridges (F. D.). A lady's travels round the

world. Lond., 1S83. British and American joint commission on Hud- son's Bay and Puget Sound Agricultural Company's claims, testimnny on pan of the U. S. Wash., 1867. British Colonist in North America, a guide for

emigrants, 1890. British Columbia. Bill to provide for the gov- ernment of New Caledonia, 1X58. British Columbia and Vancouver's Island. A complete hand-book, etc. Lond., 1858. A hand-book concerning the gold fields, (c. i860). British Columbia. The new gold fields of B. C. and Vancouver's Island. Lond., 1862.

XVlll

AUTHORITIES

Guide for B. C. By a successful digger, etc. [Lond., 1862].

Papers relative to the affairs of B. C. pre- sented to both Houses of Parliament, 1858- 1864.

Papers relative to the proposed union of B. C. and Vancouver Island, 31st May, 1866.

Debates on the subject of confederation, March, 1870.

Agric. and Horticultural Socy. reports. Vic- toria, 1873, etc.

Guide to the province of. Victoria, 1877.

Railway question, opinions of the English press. Victoria, 1877.

Information for intending settlers. (Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa, 1884).

As a field for emigration and investment [By A. Beaulands]. Victoria, B. C, 1891.

Guide map of the province, with geo- graphical description. Victoria, B. C, [1891].

Its present resources and future possibilities. Victoria (Govt.) 1893.

The Pacific province, resources, climate, etc. (C. P. Ry. Co.) 1893.

The commercial. B. C. supplement, ill. Winnipeg, 1893.

Reports of provincial archivist. Victoria, B. C.

Horticultural Society and Fruit Growers' Association of B. C. annual reports. Van- couver.

Memorial in connection with the Oraineca road petition. N. p., N. D.

Public documents, acts, ordinances and proc- lamations, consolidated statutes, correspond- ence on the custom stations between Vic- toria and Kootenay, expenditure, Indian land question, jour, of legis. assembly, jour, of leg. council, lands and works, list of voters, mmes reports, overland coach road, papers relating to affairs, public schools, registrar of births, etc., sessional papers, statutes.

Bills of the legislative assembly.

Supreme court rules.

Votes and proceedings.

Dept. of education. Manual of school law and regulations in B. C. Victoria, J893 to date.

Dept. of mines. The days of old and days of gold in B. C. Victoria, 1912.

Milling and Mining Company, prospectus. Victoria, 1878.

Mining Stock Board Constitution. Victoria, 1878.

British Columbia Archives.

Colony of British Columbia, 1858-1871 (in- cluding Vancouver Island after 1866). Governor. Proclamations and ordinances, 1858-1864.

I vol. Circular despatches from Downing Street,

1852-1868. 3 vols. Despatches from the secretary of state for

the colonies, 1866-1871. 5 vols. Despatches from the secretary of state, Ottawa, 1870-1871. I vol. Legislative Council.

Minutes, 1859-1871. i vol. Journal, 1864-1871. 2 vols. Messages from governor, 1864-1871. 2 vols. Secretar}-.

Letters, 1860-1872. 2 vols. Collector of Customs.

Letters, 1859-1870. 1 vol. Naval Officers.

Letters, 1859-1871. 1 vol. Lands and works.

Cash-books, correspondence, indexes, etc., 1858-1873. 9 vols. Departmental letters.

Governor, 1859-1870. i vol. Secretary, 1861-1872. 2 vols. Miscellaneous, 1858-1873. 10 vols. Indexes, etc. Province of British Columbia, 1871 Lieutenant-governor.

Despatches to the secretary of state, Ot- tawa, 1871-1874. 4 vols. Despatches from the secretary of state, Ottawa, 1871-1892. 18 vols. Executive Council.

Memoranda of proceedings, Nov., 1871,

Apr., 1872. Minutes relating to trouble on Skeena River. 1888. .Miscellaneous letters, 1874-1894. 7 vols. •Miscellaneous letters, local, 1871-1881. 2

vols. Miscellaneous letters, foreign, 1871-1881. 2

vols. Colony of Vancouver Island, 1849-1866. Governor.

Despatches to the secretary of state for the

colonies, 1849-1864. 5 vols. Despatches from the secretary of state for the colonies, 1852-1857, 1862-1866. 7 vols. Miscellaneous, letter-books, 1850-1866. 7 vols.

AUTHORITIES

XIX

Miscellaneous general letter-books, 1864- 1866. 2 vols.

Private official letter-book, 1859-1864. i vol.

Letters to Hudson's Bay Co., 1850-1855.

Correspondence with naval officers (Gov. Douglas). I vol.

Proclamations, 1853-1858. i vol.

Messages, replies to addresses, 1856-1863. Legislative Council.

Minutes, 1851-1861 (contain references to San Juan Island, Indian wars in Wash- ington, etc.), 1864-1866. 3 vols.

Journals, 1863-1866. i vol. House of Assembly.

Minutes, 1856-1858, 1860-1866. 3 vols.

Journals, 1861-1863. i ^'ol-

Bills, amendments, etc., 1861-1865. ' vol.

Committee on supply, minutes, 1860-1866. I vol.

Select committees, reports, 1858-1865. i vol.

Acts, proclamations, etc., 1860-1863. i vol.

Messages, returns to addresses, etc., 1856- 1860, 1864-1866. 2 vols.

Correspondence, 1856-1864. 2 vols. Treasurer.

Letter-book, 1859-1864. i vol. Lighthouse Board.

i;,spondence, 1863-1869. i vol. Historical .Manuscripts.

Journal of the Hope, Capt. Joseph Ingra- ham, Boston, to the northwest coast of America, 1790-1792. (Transcript orig- inal is in the library of congress, divi- sion of manuscripts). Nootka Sound Controversy.

Transcripts (many from the British Pub- lic Record Office), 1790-1793.

Correspondence of Don Juan de la Bodega y Quadra, Robert Gray, Joseph Ingra- ham, Lieut. John Meares, Capt. George Vancouver, Don Juan de Viana, Robert Duffin, Evan Nepean, Grenville, etc., petitions, memoranda of information re- specting American vessels. Journal of John Stuart. Dec. 20, 1805 Feb.

28, 1806. Papers of Simon Fraser.

Journals, Apr. 12 July 18, 1806 (original manuscript), May 30 June 10, 1808; letters from the Rocky mountains, ."Vug. I, 1806 Feb. 10, 1807 (copied from the Academy of Pacific Coast History) ; three letters to James McDougal, 1806- 1807; letter to John Stuart, Feb. 1, 1807.

Journals and correspondence of John Mc- Leod, Sr., 1812-1844.

Journal kept by Dixey Wildes on board the Paragon, Jan., 1819 May i, 18201 McNeil's V'oyages.

Journal of a voyage from Oahu toward Nantucket in the Golden Farmer, 1827- 1828; journal of a voyage from Bahia to the coast of Africa on board the ship Burton of Boston, 1828-1830.

Letters to Edward Ermatinger from Archi- bald McDonald and John Work, 1828- 1856. Hudson's Bay Company.

Account of sales of goods shipped on the Llama at San Francisco, 1834.

"Skin Book" of the steamer Beaver and the brig Llama, 1836-1839.

Letter-book of W. H. McNeil, Nesqually, Sitka and Stikeen, 1841-1845.

Letter-book of W. H. McNeil, Fort Simp- son, 1851-1855.

Letter-book of H. Moffat, Fort Rupert, Fort Simpson, and Kamloops, 1857-1867. Papers of James Douglas.

Diary of a journey to Norway House, 1835.

Journal, Apr. 22, 1840-Jan. 23, 1841.

Establishment of servants, Columbia dis- trict, Oct., 1839.

Continuation of a voyage to Sitka, 1841-

1843-

Letters, July 13, 1840-Mar. 16, 1867.

Journal of Thompson's River Post (Kam- loops), Aug. 3, 1841 to Dec. 14, 1843, kept by John Tod.

Reports upon Oregon territory and north- west America, made by George Simpson to Sir John Pelly, governor of the Hud- son's Bay Company, Nov. 25, 1841, Mar. 10, 1842.

Cowlitz, memorandum book, 1841-1843, and log-book, 1843-1844. Puget Sound Agricultural Company.

Transcripts of papers relating to the af- fairs of the company; prospectus; list of shareholders; memorandum relating to the Cowlitz farm, by A. C. Anderson (1841, 3 pages) ; judgement of supreme court of Washington territory in the case of Puget Sound Agric. Co. vs. Pierce county (Jan. 17, 1862) ; papers relating to Nesqually and Cowlitz claims; ac- count of Frank Clarke with the com- pany (1865) ; origin of the Puget Sound .Agric. Co., by A. C. Anderson (1865); agreement between the company and the U. S. (June 20, 1867).

XX

AUTHORITIES

See the published evidence, arguments, memorials, documents, etc., presented to the British and American joint commis- sion for the settlement of the claims of Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Agri- cultural Companies, printed in 14 parts (Montreal parts 2-7, i+, 1868); (Wash- ington, parts I, 8-13, 1865-1868). Papers and letters relating to the Oregon

territory and boundary, 18+2-1845. Papers relating to the expedition of Lieu- tenants Henry I. Warre and M. Vava- sour to the Oregon territory, 1844-1846. Correspondence of William Fraser Tolmie with John McLoughlin, James Douglas, Peter Skene Ogden and others, 1844- 186+. Establishment of Fort Yukon.

Letter of 84 pages from Alexander H. Murray of the Hudson's Bay Company to Murdo McPherson at Fort Simpson ; contains account of his journey from Peel's river to the Yukon, June 11-25, 1847, record of temperatures at Fort Yukon, July, 1847 May, 1848, and pen and ink sketches of Fort McPherson, Fort Yukon (with plan), Indians, etc. Blanshard Despatches.

Despatches from Richard Blanshard, gov- ernor of the colony of Vancouver Island to the secretary of state for the colonies, Dec. 26, 1849 Aug. 30, 185 1, and despatches to Blanshard from the secretary of state, 1849-1850. Indian war of 1855-1856 in Washington and Oregon, by Col. Granville O. Hal- ler, U. S. A. Diary of Augustus Pemberton, Jan. 15,

1856— Aug. 3, 185S. Reminiscences of boundary survey by Rob- ert Temple, 1858-1862. Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition Rec- ord of Exploration of Vancouver Island by expedition under Robert Brown, June 7-20, 1864. History of Northwest Coast, by Alexander C. Anderson. Transcript of manuscript in academy of Pacific Coast History, 132 pp. Pioneer reminiscences of Robert Holloway, Charles Holtz, John Mclvor, A. W. Rog- ers, and James Yates. British North American provinces, correspond- ence respecting the proposed union. Fur- ther papers. Lond., 1867, folio. British North-West American Emigrants Set- tlement Association. N. p., N. D.

Brock (R. W.). See geological survey, Can- ada. Brooks (Charles Wolcott). Early migrations, Japanese wrecks adrift in the north Pacific ocean. (Calif. Acad, of Sciences) 1876. Broughton (William Robert). Voyage to the north Pacific ocean in 1795 to 1798. Lond., 1804. Brown (John). Northwest passage and plans for search of Sir J. Franklin. Lond., 1858. Brown (R. C. Lundin). British Columbia An essay. New Westminster, 1863. British Columbia, the Indians and settlers at Lillooet. Lond., 1870. Brown (Robert). Coal fields of N. Pacific coast. Edinburgh, 1869. Formation of fjords, canons, etc. (Royal

Geog. Socy. Jour., 1869.) Vancouver Island exploration. Victoria,

1864. Synopsis of birds of Vancouver Island.

(The Ibis, 1868, vol. 4.) Queen Charlotte Islands. (Jour. Royal Geog. Socy., pp. 381-392.) Browne (J. Ross). Lower California. See Taylor; report upon the mineral resources west of the Rocky mountains. Wash., 1868. Browne (Peter A.). Lecture on Oregon ter- ritory. Phil., 1843. Bryce (Rev. George). Remarkable history of Hudson's Bay Co. Lomi., ~*ooo.- Mackenzie, Selkirk, Simpson. Toronto, 1906. Buache (Philip). Papers relating to voyages and discoveries in the North Pacific Ocean down to 1753. (Original Mss.) Buckingham (Wm.) and Ross (G. W.). Alex.

Mackenzie, his life. Tor., 1892. Bulfinch (Thomas). Oregon and El Dorado.

Boston, 1866. [Burges (Sir James Bland)]. Narrative of the negotiations between England and Spain in the year 1790. (Nootka) Lond.

[1791]-

Burnett (Peter H.). Recollections and opin- ions of an old pioneer. N. Y., 1880.

Burney (James). History of north-eastern voy- ages and navigations of the Russians. Lond., 1819. Voyages and discoveries in the South Sea. 5 V. Lond., 1803-1S17.

Burpee (L. J.). Search for the Western Sea. Lond., 1908. Chapter on the literature of the fur trade. (Bibliog. Socy. of Amer. vol. 5.)

Burry (B. Pullen). From Halifax to Van- couver. Toronto, 1912.

AUTHORITIES

XXI

Bury (Viscount). Balance sheet of the Wash- ington treaty, Lond., 1873.

Bustamante (Carlos Maria de). Historia de los tres Siglos de Mexico, Durante el Go- bierno Espaiiol. Supplement by Andres Cavo. (vol. 3, Nootka.) Mexico, 1836.

Butler (Sir W. F.). Great lone land. Lond., 1873. Wild north land. Lond., 1874. Far out: rovings retold. 1880.

Caine (W. S.). Trip round the world in 1887-88. Lond., 1888.

Caldwell (Robert). The gold era of Victoria. Lond., 1855.

California Academy of Sciences, proceedings of the. San Fran., 1858, etc.

Calvo: Recueil complet des traits de I'Amer- ique Latine. (Nootka) Paris, 1862.

Cambridge Modern History. Lond., 1904 (vol. 8. Account of Nootka affair).

Cameron (Agnes Deans). The New North. N. Y., 1910.

Cameron (Malcolm). Lecture on British Co- lumbia. Quebec, 1865.

Campbell (Archibald). Reports on boundary survey to summit of Rockies. Wash., 1878. Voyage round the world from 1806 to 1812. F.din., 1816.

Campbell (John). Origin of the Ilaidahs. K''S. Koval Socv., Canada, Ser. 2, 1897-98.)

Campbell (Robert). Discovery and explora- tion of the Youcon. Winnipeg, 1885.

Campos (D. Rafael Torres). F.spafia en Cali- fornia y en el Nordoeste de America. Madrid, 1892.

Canada Public Documents. Addresses of governor, agriculture, canal en- largement; census, coal trade, customs; de- bates of the House of Commons; estimates; extradition of prisoners; geological survey, Selwyn A. R. C. reports of progress, etc.; immigration anil colonization; inland rev- enues; insurance; interior; Lake Superior and Red river settlement; lights; marine and fisheries; message relative to the terms of union; meteorological magnetic; militia; navigable streams; northwest mounted police; postmaster general; pub- lic accounts; public works; secretary of stale; statistics; trade and navigation. Archives reports. Geographic Board of Canada. Forestry branch bulletins. Census reports.

Canada. Dept. of marine and fisheries, port

directory of Canadian ports and harbours.

Ottawa (Govt.), 1909.

Sessional papers No. 125, address 2tst Feb.,

1878. (.'Alaska boundary.)

Canadian annual review of public affairs 1901

to dale. Toronto, 1902 to date. Canadian Pacific Railway, Sandford Fleming, engineer in chief. Correspondence relat- ing to N. p. N. D. Maps and charts.

Papers connected with the awarding of sec- lion fifteen. Ottawa, 1877. Reports, 1872, etc. Ottawa, 1872, etc. Quarterly review, (Jan., 1887, pp. 119-143.) Canadian Parliamentary Companion, 1874-

1887-1897. Montreal, 1874, etc. Cantillo (Alej. de). Tratados de Paz y Com-

ercio. (Nootka) Madrid, 1843. Cariboo, the gold fields of British Columbia.

Lond., 1862. Cariboo Quartz Mining Company, memoranda. Victoria, 1878.

Carmichael ( ) Dean. Montreal to N'ictoria.

[Montreal, 1888.] Carnarvon (Earl of). Speeclies on Canadian

affairs. Lond., 1902. Carpenter (Edmund J.l. Tlie .American ad- vance. Lond., 1903. Carpenter (Phillip P.). Mollusca of the West

Coast of N. America. Lond., 1857. Carrel (Frank). Canada's West and Farther

West. Quebec, 191 1. Cartography of the Pacific coast. 3 v. Ms.

folio. Cartwrlght (George). Journal of a residence on the coast of Labrador. 3 v. Newark, 1792. Carver (Jonathan). Fravels through North America in 1766, 1767, and 1768. Dublin,

•779-

Cass (Hon. Lewis). Speech on the bill to protect rights in Oregon. Wash., 1846.

Catlin (George). North .American Indians. 2 V. Lnnil., 1841.

Cawstnn (George) and Keane (A. U.). Early chartered companies. Lond., 1896.

Chamberlain (.Mcxander F. ). Noun composi- tion in the Kciotenav language. (Anthro- pos, vol. 5.) Kutenai basketry. (American .Anthropolog- ist, N. S., vol. XL) l.cft-handedness among North .'\nier. In- dians. (.Ainer. .Anihrop., N. S., vol. X.) Kutenai and Shoshousan. (Amer. Anthro- pologist, N. S., vol. XI.)

XXI 1

AUTHORITIES

Some Kutenai linguistic material. (Amer- ican Anthropologist, N. S., vol. XI.) Ueber Personennaraen der Kitonaqua-In- dianer von Britisch-Kolumbien. (Zeit- schrift fiir Ethnologie. Bd. 41.) Peuple priraitif : les Kitonaqua de la Colombia Britannique. (Bull, et Mem. de la Soc. d'Anthrop. de Paris, Ve. Ser., Tome 10.) Note sur I'influence exercee sur les Indiens Kitonaqua par les missionnaires Catholi- ques. (Revue des Etudes Ethnographiques et sociologiques, vol. 2.) Der "Kartensinn" der Kitonoqua-Indianer.

(Globus, Bd. 95.) How the American Indian named the white man. (Red Man, v. 5.) Champness (W.). To Cariboo and back.

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3 vols. N. Y., 1902. Chittenden (Newton H.). Travels in British Columbia and Alaska. Victoria, 1882. Official report of the exploration of the Queen Charlotte Islands. Victoria, B. C, 1884. Churchill (J. D.) and J. Cooper. British Columbia and Vancouver Island. Lond., 1866. Clarke (Robert Carlton). How British and American subjects unite in a common gov- ernment for Oregon Territory. (Oregon Hist. Socy., June, 1912). Clarke (S. A.). Pioneer Days of Oregon His- tory. 2 vols. Cleveland, 1905. Claudet (F. G.). Gold. New Westminster,

1871. Cleveland (Richard J.). Voyage from China to the Northwest. (North Amer. Rev., Oct., 1827). In the forecastle. Clowes (William L.). Royal navy, a history from the earliest times. (Vol. 4, Nootka armament). Lond., 1899. Coats (Robert H.) and R. E. Gosnell. Sir

James Douglas [life]. Tor., 1908. Coats (W.). Geography of Hudson's Bay,

1727-51. Lond., 1852. Cocking (Matthew). An adventurer from Hudson Bay. (Trans. Royal Socy. Can- ada, 1908). Cogswell (O. H.). History of British Colum- bia. Victoria, B. C, 1893. Coleman (A. P.). Canadian Rockies. New

and old trails. Tor., 191 1. Colnett (James). Voyage to the South At- lantic and the Pacific. Lond., 1798.

Colonization of Vancouver's Island. Lond.,

1849. Colquhoun (Archibald R.). Mastery of the

Pacific. N. v., 1902. Columbia Mission, Occasional Paper. Lond., 1861. Pastoral address, n. p., 1864. Reports 1864, etc. Lond., 1864, etc. Colvocoresses (George M.). Four years in a government exploring expedition. N. Y., 1852. Comments on the Convention with Spain.

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AUTHORITIES

XXIU

Crease (Sir Henry P. P.). Proceedings in the case of the Queen vs. the McLeans and Hare. Victoria, i88o.

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Croasdaile (Henry E.). Scenes on Pacific shores. Lond., 1873.

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Crosby (Rev. Thomas). Wesleyan Methodist mission at Fort Simpson. (Rocky Moun- tain Presbyterian, Jan., 1878.) The An-ko-me-nums or Flathead tribes. Tor., 1907.

Cumberland (Stuart). Queen's highway from ocean to ocean. 1887.

Cushing (Caleb). The treaty of Washington. N. Y., 1873.

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Dallas (A. (i.). San Juan, Alaska, and the

North-West Boundary. Lond., 1873. Dalrymple. Spanish pretensions fairly dis- cussed. Lond., 1790.

Spanish memorial of 4th June considered. Lond., 1790.

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Territories and B. C. Ottawa, 1881. Dawson (George M.). Tertiary lignite forma- tion in the vicinity of the 49th parallel (Brit. North Amer. Boundary Comm.). Mont., 1874.

Geology in the vicinity of the 49lh parallel (Brit. North Amer. Boundary Comm). Mont., 1875.

Note on the locust invasion of 1874. (Can- adian Naturalist, 1876.)

Economic